A One Side Inverse Matrix is the Inverse Matrix: If $AB=I$, then $BA=I$
An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is said to be invertible if there exists an $n\times n$ matrix $B$ such that
$AB=I$, and
$BA=I$,
where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix.
If such a matrix $B$ exists, then it is known to be unique and called the inverse matrix of $A$, denoted […]

Ring of Gaussian Integers and Determine its Unit Elements
Denote by $i$ the square root of $-1$.
Let
\[R=\Z[i]=\{a+ib \mid a, b \in \Z \}\]
be the ring of Gaussian integers.
We define the norm $N:\Z[i] \to \Z$ by sending $\alpha=a+ib$ to
\[N(\alpha)=\alpha \bar{\alpha}=a^2+b^2.\]
Here $\bar{\alpha}$ is the complex conjugate of […]

Example of an Infinite Algebraic Extension
Find an example of an infinite algebraic extension over the field of rational numbers $\Q$ other than the algebraic closure $\bar{\Q}$ of $\Q$ in $\C$.
Definition (Algebraic Element, Algebraic Extension).
Let $F$ be a field and let $E$ be an extension of […]

12 Examples of Subsets that Are Not Subspaces of Vector Spaces
Each of the following sets are not a subspace of the specified vector space. For each set, give a reason why it is not a subspace.
(1) \[S_1=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3
\end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle | \quad x_1\geq 0 \,\right \}\]
in […]

In a Field of Positive Characteristic, $A^p=I$ Does Not Imply that $A$ is Diagonalizable.
Show that the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & \alpha\\
0& 1
\end{bmatrix}$, where $\alpha$ is an element of a field $F$ of characteristic $p>0$ satisfies $A^p=I$ and the matrix is not diagonalizable over $F$ if $\alpha \neq 0$.
Comment.
Remark that if $A$ is a square […]

All Linear Transformations that Take the Line $y=x$ to the Line $y=-x$
Determine all linear transformations of the $2$-dimensional $x$-$y$ plane $\R^2$ that take the line $y=x$ to the line $y=-x$.
Solution.
Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation that maps the line $y=x$ to the line $y=-x$.
Note that the linear […]