Let $W$ be the set of $3\times 3$ skew-symmetric matrices. Show that $W$ is a subspace of the vector space $V$ of all $3\times 3$ matrices. Then, exhibit a spanning set for $W$.

(c) Find a basis for the range of $A$ that consists of column vectors of $A$.

(d) For each column vector which is not a basis vector that you obtained in part (c), express it as a linear combination of the basis vectors for the range of $A$.

Suppose that a set of vectors $S_1=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ is a spanning set of a subspace $V$ in $\R^3$. Is it possible that $S_2=\{\mathbf{v}_1\}$ is a spanning set for $V$?

Suppose that a set of vectors $S_1=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ is a spanning set of a subspace $V$ in $\R^5$. If $\mathbf{v}_4$ is another vector in $V$, then is the set
\[S_2=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3, \mathbf{v}_4\}\]
still a spanning set for $V$? If so, prove it. Otherwise, give a counterexample.

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
2 & 4 & 6 & 8 \\
1 &3 & 0 & 5 \\
1 & 1 & 6 & 3
\end{bmatrix}$. (a) Find a basis for the nullspace of $A$.

(b) Find a basis for the row space of $A$.

(c) Find a basis for the range of $A$ that consists of column vectors of $A$.

(d) For each column vector which is not a basis vector that you obtained in part (c), express it as a linear combination of the basis vectors for the range of $A$.

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ nonsingular matrix. Let $\mathbf{v}, \mathbf{w}$ be linearly independent vectors in $\R^n$. Prove that the vectors $A\mathbf{v}$ and $A\mathbf{w}$ are linearly independent.

In this problem, we use the following vectors in $\R^2$.
\[\mathbf{a}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{c}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{d}=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{f}=\begin{bmatrix}
5 \\
6
\end{bmatrix}.\]
For each set $S$, determine whether $\Span(S)=\R^2$. If $\Span(S)\neq \R^2$, then give algebraic description for $\Span(S)$ and explain the geometric shape of $\Span(S)$.

Let $A$ be a $3\times 3$ matrix and let
\[\mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}.\]
Suppose that $A\mathbf{v}=-\mathbf{v}$ and $A\mathbf{w}=2\mathbf{w}$.
Then find the vector
\[A^5\begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
8 \\
-9
\end{bmatrix}.\]

For an integer $n > 0$, let $\mathrm{P}_n$ be the vector space of polynomials of degree at most $n$. The set $B = \{ 1 , x , x^2 , \cdots , x^n \}$ is a basis of $\mathrm{P}_n$, called the standard basis.

Let $T : \mathrm{P}_n \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_{n+1}$ be the map defined by, for $f \in \mathrm{P}_n$,
\[T (f) (x) = x f(x).\]

Prove that $T$ is a linear transformation, and find its range and nullspace.

Suppose that an $n \times m$ matrix $M$ is composed of the column vectors $\mathbf{b}_1 , \cdots , \mathbf{b}_m$.

Prove that a vector $\mathbf{v} \in \R^n$ can be written as a linear combination of the column vectors if and only if there is a vector $\mathbf{x}$ which solves the equation $M \mathbf{x} = \mathbf{v}$.

Let $P_2$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all polynomials of degree $2$ or less.
Let $S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x)\}$, where
\[p_1(x)=x^2+1, \quad p_2(x)=6x^2+x+2, \quad p_3(x)=3x^2+x.\]

(a) Use the basis $B=\{x^2, x, 1\}$ of $P_2$ to prove that the set $S$ is a basis for $P_2$.

(b) Find the coordinate vector of $p(x)=x^2+2x+3\in P_2$ with respect to the basis $S$.

Let $V$ be a vector space over a scalar field $K$.
Let $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ be vectors in $V$ and consider the subset
\[W=\{a_1\mathbf{v}_1+a_2\mathbf{v}_2+\cdots+ a_k\mathbf{v}_k \mid a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k \in K \text{ and } a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_k=0\}.\]
So each element of $W$ is a linear combination of vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ such that the sum of the coefficients is zero.