Diagonalize the $2\times 2$ matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
2 & -1\\
-1& 2
\end{bmatrix}$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.

Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ real symmetric matrix.
Prove that all the eigenvalues of $A$ are real numbers by considering the characteristic polynomial of $A$.

Prove that the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 1\\
-1& 0
\end{bmatrix}\]
is diagonalizable.
Prove, however, that $A$ cannot be diagonalized by a real nonsingular matrix.
That is, there is no real nonsingular matrix $S$ such that $S^{-1}AS$ is a diagonal matrix.

Let $I$ be the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.
Then prove that $-I$ cannot be a commutator $[A, B]:=ABA^{-1}B^{-1}$ for any $2\times 2$ matrices $A$ and $B$ with determinant $1$.

Consider the $2\times 2$ matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
\cos \theta & -\sin \theta\\
\sin \theta& \cos \theta \end{bmatrix},\]
where $\theta$ is a real number $0\leq \theta < 2\pi$.

(a) Find the characteristic polynomial of the matrix $A$.

(b) Find the eigenvalues of the matrix $A$.

(c) Determine the eigenvectors corresponding to each of the eigenvalues of $A$.

Consider the complex matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
\sqrt{2}\cos x & i \sin x & 0 \\
i \sin x &0 &-i \sin x \\
0 & -i \sin x & -\sqrt{2} \cos x
\end{bmatrix},\]
where $x$ is a real number between $0$ and $2\pi$.

Determine for which values of $x$ the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.
When $A$ is diagonalizable, find a diagonal matrix $D$ so that $P^{-1}AP=D$ for some nonsingular matrix $P$.

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1-a & a\\
-a& 1+a
\end{bmatrix}\]
be a $2\times 2$ matrix, where $a$ is a complex number.
Determine the values of $a$ such that the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable.

Determine whether each of the following statements is True or False.

(a) If $A$ and $B$ are $n \times n$ matrices, and $P$ is an invertible $n \times n$ matrix such that $A=PBP^{-1}$, then $\det(A)=\det(B)$.

(b) If the characteristic polynomial of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is
\[p(\lambda)=(\lambda-1)^n+2,\]
then $A$ is invertible.

(c) If $A^2$ is an invertible $n\times n$ matrix, then $A^3$ is also invertible.

(d) If $A$ is a $3\times 3$ matrix such that $\det(A)=7$, then $\det(2A^{\trans}A^{-1})=2$.

(e) If $\mathbf{v}$ is an eigenvector of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_1$, and if $\mathbf{w}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_2$, then $\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_1+\lambda_2$.

(Stanford University, Linear Algebra Exam Problem)