# Tagged: basis

## Problem 713

Determine bases for $\calN(A)$ and $\calN(A^{T}A)$ when
$A= \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 1 \\ 1 & 1 & 3 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix} .$ Then, determine the ranks and nullities of the matrices $A$ and $A^{\trans}A$.

## Problem 709

Let $S=\{\mathbf{v}_{1},\mathbf{v}_{2},\mathbf{v}_{3},\mathbf{v}_{4},\mathbf{v}_{5}\}$ where
$\mathbf{v}_{1}= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 2 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix} ,\;\mathbf{v}_{2}= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 3 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} ,\;\mathbf{v}_{3}= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 5 \\ -1 \\ 5 \end{bmatrix} ,\;\mathbf{v}_{4}= \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 4 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix} ,\;\mathbf{v}_{5}= \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 7 \\ 0 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} .$ Find a basis for the span $\Span(S)$.

## Problem 683

Let $\mathrm{P}_3$ denote the set of polynomials of degree $3$ or less with real coefficients. Consider the ordered basis
$B = \left\{ 1+x , 1+x^2 , x – x^2 + 2x^3 , 1 – x – x^2 \right\}.$ Write the coordinate vector for the polynomial $f(x) = -3 + 2x^3$ in terms of the basis $B$.

## Problem 679

For an integer $n > 0$, let $\mathrm{P}_n$ denote the vector space of polynomials with real coefficients of degree $2$ or less. Define the map $T : \mathrm{P}_2 \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_4$ by
$T(f)(x) = f(x^2).$

Determine if $T$ is a linear transformation.

If it is, find the matrix representation for $T$ relative to the basis $\mathcal{B} = \{ 1 , x , x^2 \}$ of $\mathrm{P}_2$ and $\mathcal{C} = \{ 1 , x , x^2 , x^3 , x^4 \}$ of $\mathrm{P}_4$.

## Problem 673

Let $\mathrm{P}_n$ be the vector space of polynomials of degree at most $n$. The set $B = \{ 1 , x , x^2 , \cdots , x^n \}$ is a basis of $\mathrm{P}_n$, called the standard basis.

Let $T : \mathrm{P}_3 \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_{5}$ be the map defined by, for $f \in \mathrm{P}_3$,
$T (f) (x) = ( x^2 – 2) f(x).$

Determine if $T(x)$ is a linear transformation. If it is, find the matrix representation of $T$ relative to the standard basis of $\mathrm{P}_3$ and $\mathrm{P}_{5}$.

## Problem 672

For an integer $n > 0$, let $\mathrm{P}_n$ be the vector space of polynomials of degree at most $n$. The set $B = \{ 1 , x , x^2 , \cdots , x^n \}$ is a basis of $\mathrm{P}_n$, called the standard basis.

Let $T : \mathrm{P}_n \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_{n+1}$ be the map defined by, for $f \in \mathrm{P}_n$,
$T (f) (x) = x f(x).$

Prove that $T$ is a linear transformation, and find its range and nullspace.

## Problem 632

Suppose that $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ is a basis for $\R^2$. Let $S:=[\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2]$.
Note that as the column vectors of $S$ are linearly independent, the matrix $S$ is invertible.

Prove that for each vector $\mathbf{v} \in V$, the vector $S^{-1}\mathbf{v}$ is the coordinate vector of $\mathbf{v}$ with respect to the basis $B$.

## Problem 608

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices and assume that they commute: $AB=BA$.
Then prove that the matrices $A$ and $B$ share at least one common eigenvector.

## Problem 607

Let $\calP_3$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $3$ or less.
Let
$S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},$ where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=1+3x+2x^2-x^3 & p_2(x)&=x+x^3\\
p_3(x)&=x+x^2-x^3 & p_4(x)&=3+8x+8x^3.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis $Q$ of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of polynomials in $S$.

(b) For each polynomial in $S$ that is not in $Q$, find the coordinate vector with respect to the basis $Q$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 605

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation such that
$T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} \,\right) =\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} 4\\ 3 \end{bmatrix} \,\right) =\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ -5 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find the matrix representation of $T$ (with respect to the standard basis for $\R^2$).

(b) Determine the rank and nullity of $T$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 604

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 &1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 2 & 2 & 2\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find a basis for the null space $\calN(A)$.

(b) Find a basis of the range $\calR(A)$.

(c) Find a basis of the row space for $A$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 586

Let $V$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real $2\times 2$ matrices.
Let $W$ be the subset of $V$ consisting of all symmetric matrices.

(a) Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find a basis of $W$.

(c) Determine the dimension of $W$.

## Problem 578

Let $V$ be a subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors that are perpendicular to vectors $\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}$ and $\mathbf{c}$, where
$\mathbf{a}=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{c}=\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ -1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}.$

Namely,
$V=\{\mathbf{x}\in \R^4 \mid \mathbf{a}^{\trans}\mathbf{x}=0, \mathbf{b}^{\trans}\mathbf{x}=0, \text{ and } \mathbf{c}^{\trans}\mathbf{x}=0\}.$

(a) Prove that $V$ is a subspace of $\R^4$.

(b) Find a basis of $V$.

(c) Determine the dimension of $V$.

## Problem 577

Let $V$ be a subspace of $\R^n$.
Suppose that $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k\}$ is a basis of the subspace $V$.

Prove that every basis of $V$ consists of $k$ vectors in $V$.

## Problem 574

Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ be a set of three-dimensional vectors in $\R^3$.

(a) Prove that if the set $B$ is linearly independent, then $B$ is a basis of the vector space $\R^3$.

(b) Prove that if the set $B$ spans $\R^3$, then $B$ is a basis of $\R^3$.

## Problem 553

Let $T:\R^3 \to \R^3$ be the linear transformation defined by the formula
$T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \end{bmatrix} \,\right)=\begin{bmatrix} x_1+3x_2-2x_3 \\ 2x_1+3x_2 \\ x_2+x_3 \end{bmatrix}.$

Determine whether $T$ is an isomorphism and if so find the formula for the inverse linear transformation $T^{-1}$.

## Problem 541

Let $U$ and $V$ be finite dimensional vector spaces over a scalar field $\F$.
Consider a linear transformation $T:U\to V$.

Prove that if $\dim(U) > \dim(V)$, then $T$ cannot be injective (one-to-one).

## Problem 481

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials with real coefficients of degree $2$ or less.
Let $S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\}$, where
\begin{align*}
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis of $P_2$ among the vectors of $S$. (Explain why it is a basis of $P_2$.)

(b) Let $B’$ be the basis you obtained in part (a).
For each vector of $S$ which is not in $B’$, find the coordinate vector of it with respect to the basis $B’$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

## Problem 478

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation given by
$T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \end{bmatrix} \,\right) = \begin{bmatrix} x_1-x_2 \\ x_2 \\ x_1+ x_2 \end{bmatrix}.$ Find an orthonormal basis of the range of $T$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

## Problem 476

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 1 \\ -1 &4 &1 \\ 2 & -4 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$ The matrix $A$ has an eigenvalue $2$.
Find a basis of the eigenspace $E_2$ corresponding to the eigenvalue $2$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)