Category: Linear Algebra

Compute the Determinant of a Magic Square

Problem 718

Let
\[
A=
\begin{bmatrix}
8 & 1 & 6 \\
3 & 5 & 7 \\
4 & 9 & 2
\end{bmatrix}
.
\] Notice that $A$ contains every integer from $1$ to $9$ and that the sums of each row, column, and diagonal of $A$ are equal. Such a grid is sometimes called a magic square.

Compute the determinant of $A$.

 
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Are These Linear Transformations?

Problem 717

Define two functions $T:\R^{2}\to\R^{2}$ and $S:\R^{2}\to\R^{2}$ by
\[
T\left(
\begin{bmatrix}
x \\ y
\end{bmatrix}
\right)
=
\begin{bmatrix}
2x+y \\ 0
\end{bmatrix}
,\;
S\left(
\begin{bmatrix}
x \\ y
\end{bmatrix}
\right)
=
\begin{bmatrix}
x+y \\ xy
\end{bmatrix}
.
\] Determine whether $T$, $S$, and the composite $S\circ T$ are linear transformations.

 
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Prove Vector Space Properties Using Vector Space Axioms

Problem 711

Using the axiom of a vector space, prove the following properties.
Let $V$ be a vector space over $\R$. Let $u, v, w\in V$.

(a) If $u+v=u+w$, then $v=w$.

(b) If $v+u=w+u$, then $v=w$.

(c) The zero vector $\mathbf{0}$ is unique.

(d) For each $v\in V$, the additive inverse $-v$ is unique.

(e) $0v=\mathbf{0}$ for every $v\in V$, where $0\in\R$ is the zero scalar.

(f) $a\mathbf{0}=\mathbf{0}$ for every scalar $a$.

(g) If $av=\mathbf{0}$, then $a=0$ or $v=\mathbf{0}$.

(h) $(-1)v=-v$.

The first two properties are called the cancellation law.

 
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Find a Basis for the Subspace spanned by Five Vectors

Problem 709

Let $S=\{\mathbf{v}_{1},\mathbf{v}_{2},\mathbf{v}_{3},\mathbf{v}_{4},\mathbf{v}_{5}\}$ where
\[
\mathbf{v}_{1}=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\ 2 \\ 2 \\ -1
\end{bmatrix}
,\;\mathbf{v}_{2}=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\ 3 \\ 1 \\ 1
\end{bmatrix}
,\;\mathbf{v}_{3}=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\ 5 \\ -1 \\ 5
\end{bmatrix}
,\;\mathbf{v}_{4}=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\ 1 \\ 4 \\ -1
\end{bmatrix}
,\;\mathbf{v}_{5}=
\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\ 7 \\ 0 \\ 2
\end{bmatrix}
.\] Find a basis for the span $\Span(S)$.

 
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How to Find a Basis for the Nullspace, Row Space, and Range of a Matrix

Problem 708

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
2 & 4 & 6 & 8 \\
1 &3 & 0 & 5 \\
1 & 1 & 6 & 3
\end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Find a basis for the nullspace of $A$.

(b) Find a basis for the row space of $A$.

(c) Find a basis for the range of $A$ that consists of column vectors of $A$.

(d) For each column vector which is not a basis vector that you obtained in part (c), express it as a linear combination of the basis vectors for the range of $A$.

 
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Does an Extra Vector Change the Span?

Problem 706

Suppose that a set of vectors $S_1=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ is a spanning set of a subspace $V$ in $\R^5$. If $\mathbf{v}_4$ is another vector in $V$, then is the set
\[S_2=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3, \mathbf{v}_4\}\] still a spanning set for $V$? If so, prove it. Otherwise, give a counterexample.

 
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Vector Space of Functions from a Set to a Vector Space

Problem 705

For a set $S$ and a vector space $V$ over a scalar field $\K$, define the set of all functions from $S$ to $V$
\[ \Fun ( S , V ) = \{ f : S \rightarrow V \} . \]

For $f, g \in \Fun(S, V)$, $z \in \K$, addition and scalar multiplication can be defined by
\[ (f+g)(s) = f(s) + g(s) \, \mbox{ and } (cf)(s) = c (f(s)) \, \mbox{ for all } s \in S . \]

(a) Prove that $\Fun(S, V)$ is a vector space over $\K$. What is the zero element?

(b) Let $S_1 = \{ s \}$ be a set consisting of one element. Find an isomorphism between $\Fun(S_1 , V)$ and $V$ itself. Prove that the map you find is actually a linear isomorpism.

(c) Suppose that $B = \{ e_1 , e_2 , \cdots , e_n \}$ is a basis of $V$. Use $B$ to construct a basis of $\Fun(S_1 , V)$.

(d) Let $S = \{ s_1 , s_2 , \cdots , s_m \}$. Construct a linear isomorphism between $\Fun(S, V)$ and the vector space of $n$-tuples of $V$, defined as
\[ V^m = \{ (v_1 , v_2 , \cdots , v_m ) \mid v_i \in V \mbox{ for all } 1 \leq i \leq m \} . \]

(e) Use the basis $B$ of $V$ to constract a basis of $\Fun(S, V)$ for an arbitrary finite set $S$. What is the dimension of $\Fun(S, V)$?

(f) Let $W \subseteq V$ be a subspace. Prove that $\Fun(S, W)$ is a subspace of $\Fun(S, V)$.

 
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Find a Basis for Nullspace, Row Space, and Range of a Matrix

Problem 704

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
2 & 4 & 6 & 8 \\
1 &3 & 0 & 5 \\
1 & 1 & 6 & 3
\end{bmatrix}$.
(a) Find a basis for the nullspace of $A$.

(b) Find a basis for the row space of $A$.

(c) Find a basis for the range of $A$ that consists of column vectors of $A$.

(d) For each column vector which is not a basis vector that you obtained in part (c), express it as a linear combination of the basis vectors for the range of $A$.

 
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True or False Problems on Midterm Exam 1 at OSU Spring 2018

Problem 702

The following problems are True or False.

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices.

(a) If $AB=B$, then $B$ is the identity matrix.
(b) If the coefficient matrix $A$ of the system $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$ is invertible, then the system has infinitely many solutions.
(c) If $A$ is invertible, then $ABA^{-1}=B$.
(d) If $A$ is an idempotent nonsingular matrix, then $A$ must be the identity matrix.
(e) If $x_1=0, x_2=0, x_3=1$ is a solution to a homogeneous system of linear equation, then the system has infinitely many solutions.

 
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