Category: Linear Algebra

True or False Problems on Midterm Exam 1 at OSU Spring 2018

Problem 702

The following problems are True or False.

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices.

(a) If $AB=B$, then $B$ is the identity matrix.
(b) If the coefficient matrix $A$ of the system $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$ is invertible, then the system has infinitely many solutions.
(c) If $A$ is invertible, then $ABA^{-1}=B$.
(d) If $A$ is an idempotent nonsingular matrix, then $A$ must be the identity matrix.
(e) If $x_1=0, x_2=0, x_3=1$ is a solution to a homogeneous system of linear equation, then the system has infinitely many solutions.

 
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Compute $A^5\mathbf{u}$ Using Linear Combination

Problem 696

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
-4 & -6 & -12 \\
-2 &-1 &-4 \\
2 & 3 & 6
\end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix}
6 \\
5 \\
-3
\end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
-2 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \quad \text{ and } \mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix}
-2 \\
-1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Express the vector $\mathbf{u}$ as a linear combination of $\mathbf{v}$ and $\mathbf{w}$.

(b) Compute $A^5\mathbf{v}$.

(c) Compute $A^5\mathbf{w}$.

(d) Compute $A^5\mathbf{u}$.

 
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If the Augmented Matrix is Row-Equivalent to the Identity Matrix, is the System Consistent?

Problem 695

Consider the following system of linear equations:
\begin{align*}
ax_1+bx_2 &=c\\
dx_1+ex_2 &=f\\
gx_1+hx_2 &=i.
\end{align*}

(a) Write down the augmented matrix.

(b) Suppose that the augmented matrix is row equivalent to the identity matrix. Is the system consistent? Justify your answer.

 
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Are these vectors in the Nullspace of the Matrix?

Problem 692

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 3 & -2 \\
0 &3 & 1 & 1 \\
1 & 3 & 4 & -1
\end{bmatrix}$. For each of the following vectors, determine whether the vector is in the nullspace $\calN(A)$.

(a) $\begin{bmatrix}
-3 \\
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}$

(b) $\begin{bmatrix}
-4 \\
-1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}$

(c) $\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}$

(d) $\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}$

Then, describe the nullspace $\calN(A)$ of the matrix $A$.

 
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Spanning Sets for $\R^2$ or its Subspaces

Problem 691

In this problem, we use the following vectors in $\R^2$.
\[\mathbf{a}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{c}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{d}=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{e}=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{f}=\begin{bmatrix}
5 \\
6
\end{bmatrix}.\] For each set $S$, determine whether $\Span(S)=\R^2$. If $\Span(S)\neq \R^2$, then give algebraic description for $\Span(S)$ and explain the geometric shape of $\Span(S)$.

(a) $S=\{\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}\}$
(b) $S=\{\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{c}\}$
(c) $S=\{\mathbf{c}, \mathbf{d}\}$
(d) $S=\{\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{f}\}$
(e) $S=\{\mathbf{e}, \mathbf{f}\}$
(f) $S=\{\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}, \mathbf{c}\}$
(g) $S=\{\mathbf{e}\}$

 
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Is the Derivative Linear Transformation Diagonalizable?

Problem 690

Let $\mathrm{P}_2$ denote the vector space of polynomials of degree $2$ or less, and let $T : \mathrm{P}_2 \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_2$ be the derivative linear transformation, defined by
\[ T( ax^2 + bx + c ) = 2ax + b . \]

Is $T$ diagonalizable? If so, find a diagonal matrix which represents $T$. If not, explain why not.

 
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Dot Product, Lengths, and Distances of Complex Vectors

Problem 689

For this problem, use the complex vectors
\[ \mathbf{w}_1 = \begin{bmatrix} 1 + i \\ 1 – i \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} , \, \mathbf{w}_2 = \begin{bmatrix} -i \\ 0 \\ 2 – i \end{bmatrix} , \, \mathbf{w}_3 = \begin{bmatrix} 2+i \\ 1 – 3i \\ 2i \end{bmatrix} . \]

Suppose $\mathbf{w}_4$ is another complex vector which is orthogonal to both $\mathbf{w}_2$ and $\mathbf{w}_3$, and satisfies $\mathbf{w}_1 \cdot \mathbf{w}_4 = 2i$ and $\| \mathbf{w}_4 \| = 3$.

Calculate the following expressions:

(a) $ \mathbf{w}_1 \cdot \mathbf{w}_2 $.

(b) $ \mathbf{w}_1 \cdot \mathbf{w}_3 $.

(c) $((2+i)\mathbf{w}_1 – (1+i)\mathbf{w}_2 ) \cdot \mathbf{w}_4$.

(d) $\| \mathbf{w}_1 \| , \| \mathbf{w}_2 \|$, and $\| \mathbf{w}_3 \|$.

(e) $\| 3 \mathbf{w}_4 \|$.

(f) What is the distance between $\mathbf{w}_2$ and $\mathbf{w}_3$?

 
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How to Obtain Information of a Vector if Information of Other Vectors are Given

Problem 688

Let $A$ be a $3\times 3$ matrix and let
\[\mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{w}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}.\] Suppose that $A\mathbf{v}=-\mathbf{v}$ and $A\mathbf{w}=2\mathbf{w}$.
Then find the vector
\[A^5\begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
8 \\
-9
\end{bmatrix}.\]

 
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Inner Products, Lengths, and Distances of 3-Dimensional Real Vectors

Problem 687

For this problem, use the real vectors
\[ \mathbf{v}_1 = \begin{bmatrix} -1 \\ 0 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} , \mathbf{v}_2 = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 2 \\ -3 \end{bmatrix} , \mathbf{v}_3 = \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 2 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix} . \] Suppose that $\mathbf{v}_4$ is another vector which is orthogonal to $\mathbf{v}_1$ and $\mathbf{v}_3$, and satisfying
\[ \mathbf{v}_2 \cdot \mathbf{v}_4 = -3 . \]

Calculate the following expressions:

(a) $\mathbf{v}_1 \cdot \mathbf{v}_2 $.

(b) $\mathbf{v}_3 \cdot \mathbf{v}_4$.

(c) $( 2 \mathbf{v}_1 + 3 \mathbf{v}_2 – \mathbf{v}_3 ) \cdot \mathbf{v}_4 $.

(d) $\| \mathbf{v}_1 \| , \, \| \mathbf{v}_2 \| , \, \| \mathbf{v}_3 \| $.

(e) What is the distance between $\mathbf{v}_1$ and $\mathbf{v}_2$?

 
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Given the Data of Eigenvalues, Determine if the Matrix is Invertible

Problem 686

In each of the following cases, can we conclude that $A$ is invertible? If so, find an expression for $A^{-1}$ as a linear combination of positive powers of $A$. If $A$ is not invertible, explain why not.

(a) The matrix $A$ is a $3 \times 3$ matrix with eigenvalues $\lambda=i , \lambda=-i$, and $\lambda=0$.

(b) The matrix $A$ is a $3 \times 3$ matrix with eigenvalues $\lambda=i , \lambda=-i$, and $\lambda=-1$.

 
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A Recursive Relationship for a Power of a Matrix

Problem 685

Suppose that the $2 \times 2$ matrix $A$ has eigenvalues $4$ and $-2$. For each integer $n \geq 1$, there are real numbers $b_n , c_n$ which satisfy the relation
\[ A^{n} = b_n A + c_n I , \] where $I$ is the identity matrix.

Find $b_n$ and $c_n$ for $2 \leq n \leq 5$, and then find a recursive relationship to find $b_n, c_n$ for every $n \geq 1$.

 
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The Rotation Matrix is an Orthogonal Transformation

Problem 684

Let $\mathbb{R}^2$ be the vector space of size-2 column vectors. This vector space has an inner product defined by $ \langle \mathbf{v} , \mathbf{w} \rangle = \mathbf{v}^\trans \mathbf{w}$. A linear transformation $T : \R^2 \rightarrow \R^2$ is called an orthogonal transformation if for all $\mathbf{v} , \mathbf{w} \in \R^2$,
\[\langle T(\mathbf{v}) , T(\mathbf{w}) \rangle = \langle \mathbf{v} , \mathbf{w} \rangle.\]

For a fixed angle $\theta \in [0, 2 \pi )$ , define the matrix
\[ [T] = \begin{bmatrix} \cos (\theta) & – \sin ( \theta ) \\ \sin ( \theta ) & \cos ( \theta ) \end{bmatrix} \] and the linear transformation $T : \R^2 \rightarrow \R^2$ by
\[T( \mathbf{v} ) = [T] \mathbf{v}.\]

Prove that $T$ is an orthogonal transformation.

 
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