Author: Yu

Jewelry Company Quality Test Failure Probability

Problem 731

A jewelry company requires for its products to pass three tests before they are sold at stores. For gold rings, 90 % passes the first test, 85 % passes the second test, and 80 % passes the third test. If a product fails any test, the product is thrown away and it will not take the subsequent tests. If a gold ring failed to pass one of the tests, what is the probability that it failed the second test?

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Probability Problems about Two Dice

Problem 727

Two fair and distinguishable six-sided dice are rolled.

(1) What is the probability that the sum of the upturned faces will equal $5$?

(2) What is the probability that the outcome of the second die is strictly greater than the first die?

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If the Nullity of a Linear Transformation is Zero, then Linearly Independent Vectors are Mapped to Linearly Independent Vectors

Problem 722

Let $T: \R^n \to \R^m$ be a linear transformation.
Suppose that the nullity of $T$ is zero.

If $\{\mathbf{x}_1, \mathbf{x}_2,\dots, \mathbf{x}_k\}$ is a linearly independent subset of $\R^n$, then show that $\{T(\mathbf{x}_1), T(\mathbf{x}_2), \dots, T(\mathbf{x}_k) \}$ is a linearly independent subset of $\R^m$.

 
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Compute the Determinant of a Magic Square

Problem 718

Let
\[
A=
\begin{bmatrix}
8 & 1 & 6 \\
3 & 5 & 7 \\
4 & 9 & 2
\end{bmatrix}
.
\] Notice that $A$ contains every integer from $1$ to $9$ and that the sums of each row, column, and diagonal of $A$ are equal. Such a grid is sometimes called a magic square.

Compute the determinant of $A$.

 
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Are These Linear Transformations?

Problem 717

Define two functions $T:\R^{2}\to\R^{2}$ and $S:\R^{2}\to\R^{2}$ by
\[
T\left(
\begin{bmatrix}
x \\ y
\end{bmatrix}
\right)
=
\begin{bmatrix}
2x+y \\ 0
\end{bmatrix}
,\;
S\left(
\begin{bmatrix}
x \\ y
\end{bmatrix}
\right)
=
\begin{bmatrix}
x+y \\ xy
\end{bmatrix}
.
\] Determine whether $T$, $S$, and the composite $S\circ T$ are linear transformations.

 
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Normalize Lengths to Obtain an Orthonormal Basis

Problem 715

Let
\[
\mathbf{v}_{1}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\ 1
\end{bmatrix}
,\;
\mathbf{v}_{2}
=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\ -1
\end{bmatrix}
.
\] Let $V=\Span(\mathbf{v}_{1},\mathbf{v}_{2})$. Do $\mathbf{v}_{1}$ and $\mathbf{v}_{2}$ form an orthonormal basis for $V$?

If not, then find an orthonormal basis for $V$.

 
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