Given any constants $a,b,c$ where $a\neq 0$, find all values of $x$ such that the matrix $A$ is invertible if
\[
A=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & c \\
0 & a & -b \\
-1/a & x & x^{2}
\end{bmatrix}
.
\]

(a) If $AB=B$, then $B$ is the identity matrix. (b) If the coefficient matrix $A$ of the system $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$ is invertible, then the system has infinitely many solutions. (c) If $A$ is invertible, then $ABA^{-1}=B$. (d) If $A$ is an idempotent nonsingular matrix, then $A$ must be the identity matrix. (e) If $x_1=0, x_2=0, x_3=1$ is a solution to a homogeneous system of linear equation, then the system has infinitely many solutions.

Let $A, B, C$ be $n\times n$ invertible matrices. When you simplify the expression
\[C^{-1}(AB^{-1})^{-1}(CA^{-1})^{-1}C^2,\]
which matrix do you get?
(a) $A$
(b) $C^{-1}A^{-1}BC^{-1}AC^2$
(c) $B$
(d) $C^2$
(e) $C^{-1}BC$
(f) $C$

Suppose that $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ is a basis for $\R^2$. Let $S:=[\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2]$.
Note that as the column vectors of $S$ are linearly independent, the matrix $S$ is invertible.

Prove that for each vector $\mathbf{v} \in V$, the vector $S^{-1}\mathbf{v}$ is the coordinate vector of $\mathbf{v}$ with respect to the basis $B$.

The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017.
There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold).
The time limit was 55 minutes.

This post is Part 2 and contains Problem 4, 5, and 6.
Check out Part 1 and Part 3 for the rest of the exam problems.

Problem 4. Let
\[\mathbf{a}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{a}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
-1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
a \\
2
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Find all the values for $a$ so that the vector $\mathbf{b}$ is a linear combination of vectors $\mathbf{a}_1$ and $\mathbf{a}_2$.

Problem 5.
Find the inverse matrix of
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 0 & 2 & 0 \\
0 &1 & 0 & 0 \\
1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
1 & 0 & 0 & 1
\end{bmatrix}\]
if it exists. If you think there is no inverse matrix of $A$, then give a reason.

Problem 6.
Consider the system of linear equations
\begin{align*}
3x_1+2x_2&=1\\
5x_1+3x_2&=2.
\end{align*}

(a) Find the coefficient matrix $A$ of the system.

(b) Find the inverse matrix of the coefficient matrix $A$.

(c) Using the inverse matrix of $A$, find the solution of the system.

(Linear Algebra Midterm Exam 1, the Ohio State University)

The following problems are Midterm 1 problems of Linear Algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University in Autumn 2017.
There were 9 problems that covered Chapter 1 of our textbook (Johnson, Riess, Arnold).
The time limit was 55 minutes.

This post is Part 1 and contains the first three problems.
Check out Part 2 and Part 3 for the rest of the exam problems.

Problem 1. Determine all possibilities for the number of solutions of each of the systems of linear equations described below.

(a) A consistent system of $5$ equations in $3$ unknowns and the rank of the system is $1$.

(b) A homogeneous system of $5$ equations in $4$ unknowns and it has a solution $x_1=1$, $x_2=2$, $x_3=3$, $x_4=4$.

Problem 2. Consider the homogeneous system of linear equations whose coefficient matrix is given by the following matrix $A$. Find the vector form for the general solution of the system.
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & -1 & -2 \\
2 &1 & -2 & -7 \\
3 & 0 & -3 & -6 \\
0 & 1 & 0 & -3
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Problem 3. Let $A$ be the following invertible matrix.
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5\\
6 & -7 & 8& 9& 10\\
11 & 12 & -13 & 14 & 15\\
16 & 17 & 18& -19 & 20\\
21 & 22 & 23 & 24 & -25
\end{bmatrix}
\]
Let $I$ be the $5\times 5$ identity matrix and let $B$ be a $5\times 5$ matrix.
Suppose that $ABA^{-1}=I$.
Then determine the matrix $B$.

(Linear Algebra Midterm Exam 1, the Ohio State University)

Let $I$ be the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.
Then prove that $-I$ cannot be a commutator $[A, B]:=ABA^{-1}B^{-1}$ for any $2\times 2$ matrices $A$ and $B$ with determinant $1$.

An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called nonsingular if the only vector $\mathbf{x}\in \R^n$ satisfying the equation $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$ is $\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$.
Using the definition of a nonsingular matrix, prove the following statements.

(a) If $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ nonsingular matrix, then the product $AB$ is also nonsingular.

(b) Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices and suppose that the product $AB$ is nonsingular. Then:

The matrix $B$ is nonsingular.

The matrix $A$ is nonsingular. (You may use the fact that a nonsingular matrix is invertible.)

Let $\mathbf{v}$ be a nonzero vector in $\R^n$.
Then the dot product $\mathbf{v}\cdot \mathbf{v}=\mathbf{v}^{\trans}\mathbf{v}\neq 0$.
Set $a:=\frac{2}{\mathbf{v}^{\trans}\mathbf{v}}$ and define the $n\times n$ matrix $A$ by
\[A=I-a\mathbf{v}\mathbf{v}^{\trans},\]
where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix.

Prove that $A$ is a symmetric matrix and $AA=I$.
Conclude that the inverse matrix is $A^{-1}=A$.

For each of the following $3\times 3$ matrices $A$, determine whether $A$ is invertible and find the inverse $A^{-1}$ if exists by computing the augmented matrix $[A|I]$, where $I$ is the $3\times 3$ identity matrix.

An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is said to be invertible if there exists an $n\times n$ matrix $B$ such that

$AB=I$, and

$BA=I$,

where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix.

If such a matrix $B$ exists, then it is known to be unique and called the inverse matrix of $A$, denoted by $A^{-1}$.

In this problem, we prove that if $B$ satisfies the first condition, then it automatically satisfies the second condition.
So if we know $AB=I$, then we can conclude that $B=A^{-1}$.

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices.
Suppose that we have $AB=I$, where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix.

The $(i, j)$ cofactor $C_{ij}$ of $A$ is defined to be
\[C_{ij}=(-1)^{ij}\det(M_{ij}),\]
where $M_{ij}$ is the $(i,j)$ minor matrix obtained from $A$ removing the $i$-th row and $j$-th column.

Then consider the $n\times n$ matrix $C=(C_{ij})$, and define the $n\times n$ matrix $\Adj(A)=C^{\trans}$.
The matrix $\Adj(A)$ is called the adjoint matrix of $A$.

When $A$ is invertible, then its inverse can be obtained by the formula

\[A^{-1}=\frac{1}{\det(A)}\Adj(A).\]

For each of the following matrices, determine whether it is invertible, and if so, then find the invertible matrix using the above formula.

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ invertible matrix. Then prove the transpose $A^{\trans}$ is also invertible and that the inverse matrix of the transpose $A^{\trans}$ is the transpose of the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.
Namely, show that
\[(A^{\trans})^{-1}=(A^{-1})^{\trans}.\]

Let $A$ be a singular $2\times 2$ matrix such that $\tr(A)\neq -1$ and let $I$ be the $2\times 2$ identity matrix.
Then prove that the inverse matrix of the matrix $I+A$ is given by the following formula:
\[(I+A)^{-1}=I-\frac{1}{1+\tr(A)}A.\]

Using the formula, calculate the inverse matrix of $\begin{bmatrix}
2 & 1\\
1& 2
\end{bmatrix}$.