Express a Vector as a Linear Combination of Other Vectors
Express the vector $\mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
13 \\
6
\end{bmatrix}$ as a linear combination of the vectors
\[\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
5 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix},
\mathbf{v}_2=
\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
[…]

Find Values of $a$ so that Augmented Matrix Represents a Consistent System
Suppose that the following matrix $A$ is the augmented matrix for a system of linear equations.
\[A= \left[\begin{array}{rrr|r}
1 & 2 & 3 & 4 \\
2 &-1 & -2 & a^2 \\
-1 & -7 & -11 & a
\end{array} \right],\]
where $a$ is a real number. Determine all the […]

Determine Whether Matrices are in Reduced Row Echelon Form, and Find Solutions of Systems
Determine whether the following augmented matrices are in reduced row echelon form, and calculate the solution sets of their associated systems of linear equations.
(a) $\left[\begin{array}{rrr|r} 1 & 0 & 0 & 2 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & -3 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 6 \end{array} \right]$.
(b) […]

Solving a System of Linear Equations Using Gaussian Elimination
Solve the following system of linear equations using Gaussian elimination.
\begin{align*}
x+2y+3z &=4 \\
5x+6y+7z &=8\\
9x+10y+11z &=12
\end{align*}
Elementary row operations
The three elementary row operations on a matrix are defined as […]

Give a Formula for a Linear Transformation if the Values on Basis Vectors are Known
Let $T: \R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation.
Let
\[
\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}\]
be 2-dimensional vectors.
Suppose that
\begin{align*}
T(\mathbf{u})&=T\left( \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
[…]

Vector Space of Polynomials and Coordinate Vectors
Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less.
Consider the subset in $P_2$
\[Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\]
where
\begin{align*}
&p_1(x)=x^2+2x+1, &p_2(x)=2x^2+3x+1, \\
&p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=2x^2+x+1.
\end{align*}
(a) Use the basis […]

Find a Basis For the Null Space of a Given $2\times 3$ Matrix
Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & 0 \\
1 &1 &0
\end{bmatrix}\]
be a matrix.
Find a basis of the null space of the matrix $A$.
(Remark: a null space is also called a kernel.)
Solution.
The null space $\calN(A)$ of the matrix $A$ is by […]

Express a Vector as a Linear Combination of Given Three Vectors
Let
\[\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
5 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
4 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
13 \\
6
[…]