# Tagged: elementary row operations

## Problem 267

Solve the following system of linear equations by transforming its augmented matrix to reduced echelon form (Gauss-Jordan elimination).

Find the vector form for the general solution.
\begin{align*}
x_1-x_3-3x_5&=1\\
3x_1+x_2-x_3+x_4-9x_5&=3\\
x_1-x_3+x_4-2x_5&=1.
\end{align*}

## Problem 262

(a) Solve the following system by transforming the augmented matrix to reduced echelon form (Gauss-Jordan elimination). Indicate the elementary row operations you performed.
\begin{align*}
x_1+x_2-x_5&=1\\
x_2+2x_3+x_4+3x_5&=1\\
x_1-x_3+x_4+x_5&=0
\end{align*}

(b) Determine all possibilities for the solution set of a homogeneous system of $2$ equations in $2$ unknowns that has a solution $x_1=1, x_2=5$.

## Problem 260

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 2 \\ 2 &2 &4 \\ 2 & 3 & 5 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find a matrix $B$ in reduced row echelon form such that $B$ is row equivalent to the matrix $A$.

(b) Find a basis for the null space of $A$.

(c) Find a basis for the range of $A$ that consists of columns of $A$. For each columns, $A_j$ of $A$ that does not appear in the basis, express $A_j$ as a linear combination of the basis vectors.

(d) Exhibit a basis for the row space of $A$.

## Problem 248

We say that two $m\times n$ matrices are row equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of elementary row operations.

Let $A$ and $I$ be $2\times 2$ matrices defined as follows.
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & b\\ c& d \end{bmatrix}, \qquad I=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0\\ 0& 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ Prove that the matrix $A$ is row equivalent to the matrix $I$ if $d-cb \neq 0$.

## Problem 242

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 &3 &2 \\ -1 & -3 & -4 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } B=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 &3 &2 \\ 5 & 3 & 3 \end{bmatrix}.$

Determine the null spaces of matrices $A$ and $B$.

## Problem 194

Find the value(s) of $h$ for which the following set of vectors
$\left \{ \mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix} h \\ 1 \\ -h \end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{v}_3=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2h \\ 3h+1 \end{bmatrix}\right\}$ is linearly independent.

(Boston College, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Sample Problem)

## Problem 157

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less.
Consider the subset in $P_2$
$Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},$ where
\begin{align*}
&p_1(x)=x^2+2x+1, &p_2(x)=2x^2+3x+1, \\
&p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=2x^2+x+1.
\end{align*}

(a) Use the basis $B=\{1, x, x^2\}$ of $P_2$, give the coordinate vectors of the vectors in $Q$.

(b) Find a basis of the span $\Span(Q)$ consisting of vectors in $Q$.

(c) For each vector in $Q$ which is not a basis vector you obtained in (b), express the vector as a linear combination of basis vectors.

## Problem 154

Define the map $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ by $T \left ( \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \end{bmatrix}\right )=\begin{bmatrix} x_1-x_2 \\ x_1+x_2 \\ x_2 \end{bmatrix}$.

(a) Show that $T$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Find a matrix $A$ such that $T(\mathbf{x})=A\mathbf{x}$ for each $\mathbf{x} \in \R^2$.

(c) Describe the null space (kernel) and the range of $T$ and give the rank and the nullity of $T$.

## Problem 152

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices, and let the subset $S$ of $V$ be defined by $S=\{A_1, A_2, A_3, A_4\}$, where
\begin{align*}
A_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 \\
-1 & 3
A_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & -1 \\
1 & 4
A_3=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 0 \\
1 & -10
A_4=\begin{bmatrix}
3 & 7 \\
-2 & 6
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Find a basis of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of vectors in $S$ and find the dimension of $\Span(S)$.

## Problem 126

Let $A$ be the following $3 \times 3$ matrix.
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & -1 \\ 0 &1 &2 \\ 1 & 1 & a \end{bmatrix}.$ Determine the values of $a$ so that the matrix $A$ is nonsingular.

## Problem 107

For what value(s) of $a$ does the system have nontrivial solutions?
\begin{align*}
&x_1+2x_2+x_3=0\\
&-x_1-x_2+x_3=0\\
& 3x_1+4x_2+ax_3=0.
\end{align*}

## Problem 103

Find the rank of the following real matrix.
$\begin{bmatrix} a & 1 & 2 \\ 1 &1 &1 \\ -1 & 1 & 1-a \end{bmatrix},$ where $a$ is a real number.

(Kyoto University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 76

Let A be the matrix
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1 & 0 \\ 0 &1 &-1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ Is the matrix $A$ invertible? If not, then explain why it isn’t invertible. If so, then find the inverse.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 65

Consider the system of linear equations
\begin{align*}
x_1&= 2, \\
-2x_1 + x_2 &= 3, \\
5x_1-4x_2 +x_3 &= 2
\end{align*}

(a) Find the coefficient matrix and its inverse matrix.

(b) Using the inverse matrix, solve the system of linear equations.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 48

Let $V$ be an $n$-dimensional vector space over a field $K$.
Suppose that $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ are linearly independent vectors in $V$.

Are the following vectors linearly independent?

$\mathbf{v}_1+\mathbf{v}_2, \quad \mathbf{v}_2+\mathbf{v}_3, \quad \dots, \quad \mathbf{v}_{k-1}+\mathbf{v}_k, \quad \mathbf{v}_k+\mathbf{v}_1.$

If it is linearly dependent, give a non-trivial linear combination of these vectors summing up to the zero vector.