Tagged: subspace criteria

Problem 664

Let $V$ be the vector space of $k \times k$ matrices. Then for fixed matrices $R, S \in V$, define the subset $W = \{ R A S \mid A \in V \}$.

Prove that $W$ is a vector subspace of $V$.

Problem 662

For what real values of $a$ is the set
$W_a = \{ f \in C(\mathbb{R}) \mid f(0) = a \}$ a subspace of the vector space $C(\mathbb{R})$ of all real-valued functions?

Problem 660

Let $V$ be the vector space of $n \times n$ matrices, and $M \in V$ a fixed matrix. Define
$W = \{ A \in V \mid AM = MA \}.$ The set $W$ here is called the centralizer of $M$ in $V$.

Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

Problem 659

Fix the row vector $\mathbf{b} = \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 3 & -1 \end{bmatrix}$, and let $\R^3$ be the vector space of $3 \times 1$ column vectors. Define
$W = \{ \mathbf{v} \in \R^3 \mid \mathbf{b} \mathbf{v} = 0 \}.$ Prove that $W$ is a vector subspace of $\R^3$.

Problem 658

Let $V$ be the vector space of $n \times n$ matrices with real coefficients, and define
$W = \{ \mathbf{v} \in V \mid \mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} = \mathbf{w} \mathbf{v} \mbox{ for all } \mathbf{w} \in V \}.$ The set $W$ is called the center of $V$.

Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

Problem 601

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices whose entries are real numbers.
Let
$W=\left\{\, A\in V \quad \middle | \quad A=\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ c& -a \end{bmatrix} \text{ for any } a, b, c\in \R \,\right\}.$

(a) Show that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find a basis of $W$.

(c) Find the dimension of $W$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

Problem 595

Let $U$ and $V$ be subspaces of the $n$-dimensional vector space $\R^n$.

Prove that the intersection $U\cap V$ is also a subspace of $\R^n$.

Problem 581

Let $V$ be a vector space over a scalar field $K$.
Let $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ be vectors in $V$ and consider the subset
$W=\{a_1\mathbf{v}_1+a_2\mathbf{v}_2+\cdots+ a_k\mathbf{v}_k \mid a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k \in K \text{ and } a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_k=0\}.$ So each element of $W$ is a linear combination of vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ such that the sum of the coefficients is zero.

Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

Problem 480

(a) Let $S$ be the subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors $\begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \\ w \end{bmatrix}$ satisfying
$2x+4y+3z+7w+1=0.$ Determine whether $S$ is a subspace of $\R^4$. If so prove it. If not, explain why it is not a subspace.

(b) Let $S$ be the subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors $\begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \\ w \end{bmatrix}$ satisfying
$2x+4y+3z+7w=0.$ Determine whether $S$ is a subspace of $\R^4$. If so prove it. If not, explain why it is not a subspace.

(These two problems look similar but note that the equations are different.)

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

Problem 430

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $K$.
If $W_1$ and $W_2$ are subspaces of $V$, then prove that the subset
$W_1+W_2:=\{\mathbf{x}+\mathbf{y} \mid \mathbf{x}\in W_1, \mathbf{y}\in W_2\}$ is a subspace of the vector space $V$.

Problem 371

Let $S$ be the subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors $\begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \\ w \end{bmatrix}$ satisfying
$2x+3y+5z+7w=0.$ Then prove that the set $S$ is a subspace of $\R^4$.

(Linear Algebra Exam Problem, The Ohio State University)

Problem 338

Each of the following sets are not a subspace of the specified vector space. For each set, give a reason why it is not a subspace.
(1) $S_1=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle | \quad x_1\geq 0 \,\right \}$ in the vector space $\R^3$.

(2) $S_2=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle | \quad x_1-4x_2+5x_3=2 \,\right \}$ in the vector space $\R^3$.

(3) $S_3=\left \{\, \begin{bmatrix} x \\ y \end{bmatrix}\in \R^2 \quad \middle | \quad y=x^2 \quad \,\right \}$ in the vector space $\R^2$.

(4) Let $P_4$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $4$ or less with real coefficients.
$S_4=\{ f(x)\in P_4 \mid f(1) \text{ is an integer}\}$ in the vector space $P_4$.

(5) $S_5=\{ f(x)\in P_4 \mid f(1) \text{ is a rational number}\}$ in the vector space $P_4$.

(6) Let $M_{2 \times 2}$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ real matrices.
$S_6=\{ A\in M_{2\times 2} \mid \det(A) \neq 0\}$ in the vector space $M_{2\times 2}$.

(7) $S_7=\{ A\in M_{2\times 2} \mid \det(A)=0\}$ in the vector space $M_{2\times 2}$.

(Linear Algebra Exam Problem, the Ohio State University)

(8) Let $C[-1, 1]$ be the vector space of all real continuous functions defined on the interval $[a, b]$.
$S_8=\{ f(x)\in C[-2,2] \mid f(-1)f(1)=0\}$ in the vector space $C[-2, 2]$.

(9) $S_9=\{ f(x) \in C[-1, 1] \mid f(x)\geq 0 \text{ for all } -1\leq x \leq 1\}$ in the vector space $C[-1, 1]$.

(10) Let $C^2[a, b]$ be the vector space of all real-valued functions $f(x)$ defined on $[a, b]$, where $f(x), f'(x)$, and $f^{\prime\prime}(x)$ are continuous on $[a, b]$. Here $f'(x), f^{\prime\prime}(x)$ are the first and second derivative of $f(x)$.
$S_{10}=\{ f(x) \in C^2[-1, 1] \mid f^{\prime\prime}(x)+f(x)=\sin(x) \text{ for all } -1\leq x \leq 1\}$ in the vector space $C[-1, 1]$.

(11) Let $S_{11}$ be the set of real polynomials of degree exactly $k$, where $k \geq 1$ is an integer, in the vector space $P_k$.

(12) Let $V$ be a vector space and $W \subset V$ a vector subspace. Define the subset $S_{12}$ to be the complement of $W$,
$V \setminus W = \{ \mathbf{v} \in V \mid \mathbf{v} \not\in W \}.$

Problem 328

(a) Let $C[-1,1]$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real-valued continuous functions defined on the interval $[-1, 1]$.
Consider the subset $F$ of $C[-1, 1]$ defined by
$F=\{ f(x)\in C[-1, 1] \mid f(0) \text{ is an integer}\}.$ Prove or disprove that $F$ is a subspace of $C[-1, 1]$.

(b) Let $n$ be a positive integer.
An $n\times n$ matrix $A$ is called skew-symmetric if $A^{\trans}=-A$.
Let $M_{n\times n}$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all $n\times n$ real matrices.
Consider the subset $W$ of $M_{n\times n}$ defined by
$W=\{A\in M_{n\times n} \mid A \text{ is skew-symmetric}\}.$ Prove or disprove that $W$ is a subspace of $M_{n\times n}$.

Problem 308

Let $V$ be a real vector space of all real sequences
$(a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}=(a_1, a_2, \cdots).$ Let $U$ be the subset of $V$ defined by
$U=\{ (a_i)_{i=1}^{\infty} \in V \mid a_{k+2}-5a_{k+1}+3a_{k}=0, k=1, 2, \dots \}.$

Prove that $U$ is a subspace of $V$.

Problem 304

Problem 1 Let $W$ be the subset of the $3$-dimensional vector space $\R^3$ defined by
$W=\left\{ \mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \end{bmatrix}\in \R^3 \quad \middle| \quad 2x_1x_2=x_3 \right\}.$

(a) Which of the following vectors are in the subset $W$? Choose all vectors that belong to $W$.
$(1) \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} \qquad(2) \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} \qquad(3)\begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} \qquad(4) \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} \qquad(5) \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 4 \\ 1 &2 &4 \end{bmatrix} \qquad(6) \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ -1 \\ -2 \end{bmatrix}.$

(b) Determine whether $W$ is a subspace of $\R^3$ or not.

Problem 2 Let $W$ be the subset of $\R^3$ defined by
$W=\left\{ \mathbf{x}=\begin{bmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_3 \end{bmatrix} \in \R^3 \quad \middle| \quad x_1=3x_2 \text{ and } x_3=0 \right\}.$ Determine whether the subset $W$ is a subspace of $\R^3$ or not.

Problem 292

Let $V$ be a subset of the vector space $\R^n$ consisting only of the zero vector of $\R^n$. Namely $V=\{\mathbf{0}\}$.
Then prove that $V$ is a subspace of $\R^n$.

Problem 285

Let $V$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real valued function on the interval $[0, 1]$ and let
$W=\{ f(x)\in V \mid f(x)=f(1-x) \text{ for } x\in [0,1]\}$ be a subset of $V$. Determine whether the subset $W$ is a subspace of the vector space $V$.

Problem 166

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices. Let $W$ be a subset of $V$ consisting of all $2\times 2$ skew-symmetric matrices. (Recall that a matrix $A$ is skew-symmetric if $A^{\trans}=-A$.)

(a) Prove that the subset $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find the dimension of $W$.

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

Problem 143

Let $V$ be the vector space over $\R$ consisting of all $n\times n$ real matrices for some fixed integer $n$. Prove or disprove that the following subsets of $V$ are subspaces of $V$.

(a) The set $S$ consisting of all $n\times n$ symmetric matrices.

(b) The set $T$ consisting of all $n \times n$ skew-symmetric matrices.

(c) The set $U$ consisting of all $n\times n$ nonsingular matrices.

Problem 79

Let $V$ be the set of all $n \times n$ diagonal matrices whose traces are zero.
That is,

\begin{equation*}
V:=\left\{ A=\begin{bmatrix}
a_{11} & 0 & \dots & 0 \\
0 &a_{22} & \dots & 0 \\
0 & 0 & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & \dots & a_{nn}
\begin{array}{l}
a_{11}, \dots, a_{nn} \in \C,\\
\tr(A)=0 \\
\end{array}
\right\}
\end{equation*}

Let $E_{ij}$ denote the $n \times n$ matrix whose $(i,j)$-entry is $1$ and zero elsewhere.

(a) Show that $V$ is a subspace of the vector space $M_n$ over $\C$ of all $n\times n$ matrices. (You may assume without a proof that $M_n$ is a vector space.)

(b) Show that matrices
$E_{11}-E_{22}, \, E_{22}-E_{33}, \, \dots,\, E_{n-1\, n-1}-E_{nn}$ are a basis for the vector space $V$.

(c) Find the dimension of $V$.