# Field-theory-eye-catch

by Yu · Published · Updated

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- Find Matrix Representation of Linear Transformation From $\R^2$ to $\R^2$ Let $T: \R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation such that \[T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \,\right)=\begin{bmatrix} 4 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \,\right)=\begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 2 […]
- Determine Trigonometric Functions with Given Conditions (a) Find a function \[g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 \theta)\] such that $g(0) = g(\pi/2) = g(\pi) = 0$, where $a, b, c$ are constants. (b) Find real numbers $a, b, c$ such that the function \[g(\theta) = a \cos(\theta) + b \cos(2 \theta) + c \cos(3 […]
- If $A^{\trans}A=A$, then $A$ is a Symmetric Idempotent Matrix Let $A$ be a square matrix such that \[A^{\trans}A=A,\] where $A^{\trans}$ is the transpose matrix of $A$. Prove that $A$ is idempotent, that is, $A^2=A$. Also, prove that $A$ is a symmetric matrix. Hint. Recall the basic properties of transpose […]
- Null Space, Nullity, Range, Rank of a Projection Linear Transformation Let $\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}$ and $T:\R^3 \to \R^3$ be the linear transformation \[T(\mathbf{x})=\proj_{\mathbf{u}}\mathbf{x}=\left(\, \frac{\mathbf{u}\cdot \mathbf{x}}{\mathbf{u}\cdot \mathbf{u}} \,\right)\mathbf{u}.\] (a) […]
- Equation $x_1^2+\cdots +x_k^2=-1$ Doesn’t Have a Solution in Number Field $\Q(\sqrt[3]{2}e^{2\pi i/3})$ Let $\alpha= \sqrt[3]{2}e^{2\pi i/3}$. Prove that $x_1^2+\cdots +x_k^2=-1$ has no solutions with all $x_i\in \Q(\alpha)$ and $k\geq 1$. Proof. Note that $\alpha= \sqrt[3]{2}e^{2\pi i/3}$ is a root of the polynomial $x^3-2$. The polynomial $x^3-2$ is […]
- Express the Eigenvalues of a 2 by 2 Matrix in Terms of the Trace and Determinant Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ c& d \end{bmatrix}$ be an $2\times 2$ matrix. Express the eigenvalues of $A$ in terms of the trace and the determinant of $A$. Solution. Recall the definitions of the trace and determinant of $A$: \[\tr(A)=a+d \text{ and } […]
- The Ideal $(x)$ is Prime in the Polynomial Ring $R[x]$ if and only if the Ring $R$ is an Integral Domain Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Prove that the principal ideal $(x)$ generated by the element $x$ in the polynomial ring $R[x]$ is a prime ideal if and only if $R$ is an integral domain. Prove also that the ideal $(x)$ is a maximal ideal if and only if $R$ is a […]
- Condition that a Matrix is Similar to the Companion Matrix of its Characteristic Polynomial Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ complex matrix. Let $p(x)=\det(xI-A)$ be the characteristic polynomial of $A$ and write it as \[p(x)=x^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_1x+a_0,\] where $a_i$ are real numbers. Let $C$ be the companion matrix of the polynomial $p(x)$ given […]