Suppose that $P$ is a prime ideal. Let $I$ and $J$ be ideals such that $IJ \subset P$. Assume that
\[I \not \subset P \text{ and } J \not \subset P.\]
Then there exist
\[a \in I \setminus P \text{ and } b\in J \setminus P.\]

Then the element $ab$ is in both $I$ and $J$ since $I, J$ are ideals. Then we have
\[ab \in IJ \subset P\]
and this implies either $a \in P$ or $b\in P$ since $P$ is a prime ideal.

However, this contradicts the choice of the elements $a, b$.
Therefore, we must have
\[I \subset P \text{ or } J \subset P.\]

(b) $\implies$ (a)

Now we assume statement (b) is true.
Suppose that $ab \in P$, where $a, b \in R$.
Let $I=(a)$, $J=(b)$ be ideals generated by $a$ and $b$, respectively.

Then we have
\[IJ=(ab)\subset P\]
since $ab \in P$, and statement (b) implies that we have either $(a)=I\subset P $ or $(b)=J \subset P$.

Hence we have either $a \in P$ or $b\in P$.
Thus $P$ is a prime ideal.

Prime Ideal is Irreducible in a Commutative Ring
Let $R$ be a commutative ring. An ideal $I$ of $R$ is said to be irreducible if it cannot be written as an intersection of two ideals of $R$ which are strictly larger than $I$.
Prove that if $\frakp$ is a prime ideal of the commutative ring $R$, then $\frakp$ is […]

If Every Proper Ideal of a Commutative Ring is a Prime Ideal, then It is a Field.
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$.
Prove that if every proper ideal of $R$ is a prime ideal, then $R$ is a field.
Proof.
As the zero ideal $(0)$ of $R$ is a proper ideal, it is a prime ideal by assumption.
Hence $R=R/\{0\}$ is an integral […]

Nilpotent Element a in a Ring and Unit Element $1-ab$
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1 \neq 0$.
An element $a\in R$ is called nilpotent if $a^n=0$ for some positive integer $n$.
Then prove that if $a$ is a nilpotent element of $R$, then $1-ab$ is a unit for all $b \in R$.
We give two proofs.
Proof 1.
Since $a$ […]

A Prime Ideal in the Ring $\Z[\sqrt{10}]$
Consider the ring
\[\Z[\sqrt{10}]=\{a+b\sqrt{10} \mid a, b \in \Z\}\]
and its ideal
\[P=(2, \sqrt{10})=\{a+b\sqrt{10} \mid a, b \in \Z, 2|a\}.\]
Show that $p$ is a prime ideal of the ring $\Z[\sqrt{10}]$.
Definition of a prime ideal.
An ideal $P$ of a ring $R$ is […]

In a Principal Ideal Domain (PID), a Prime Ideal is a Maximal Ideal
Let $R$ be a principal ideal domain (PID) and let $P$ be a nonzero prime ideal in $R$.
Show that $P$ is a maximal ideal in $R$.
Definition
A commutative ring $R$ is a principal ideal domain (PID) if $R$ is a domain and any ideal $I$ is generated by a single element […]

Characteristic of an Integral Domain is 0 or a Prime Number
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Show that if $R$ is an integral domain, then the characteristic of $R$ is either $0$ or a prime number $p$.
Definition of the characteristic of a ring.
The characteristic of a commutative ring $R$ with $1$ is defined as […]

$(x^3-y^2)$ is a Prime Ideal in the Ring $R[x, y]$, $R$ is an Integral Domain.
Let $R$ be an integral domain. Then prove that the ideal $(x^3-y^2)$ is a prime ideal in the ring $R[x, y]$.
Proof.
Consider the ring $R[t]$, where $t$ is a variable. Since $R$ is an integral domain, so is $R[t]$.
Define the function $\Psi:R[x,y] \to R[t]$ sending […]