# Pythagorean triple 2017

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• Mathematics About the Number 2018 Happy New Year 2018!! Here are several mathematical facts about the number 2018.   Is 2018 a Prime Number? The number 2018 is an even number, so in particular 2018 is not a prime number. The prime factorization of 2018 is $2018=2\cdot 1009.$ Here $2$ and $1009$ are […]
• Possibilities For the Number of Solutions for a Linear System Determine whether the following systems of equations (or matrix equations) described below has no solution, one unique solution or infinitely many solutions and justify your answer. (a) $\left\{ \begin{array}{c} ax+by=c \\ dx+ey=f, \end{array} \right.$ where $a,b,c, d$ […]
• Compute the Product $A^{2017}\mathbf{u}$ of a Matrix Power and a Vector Let $A=\begin{bmatrix} -1 & 2 \\ 0 & -1 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix} 1\\ 0 \end{bmatrix}.$ Compute $A^{2017}\mathbf{u}$.   (The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam) Solution. We first compute $A\mathbf{u}$. We […]
• Linear Independent Continuous Functions Let $C[3, 10]$ be the vector space consisting of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[3, 10]$. Consider the set $S=\{ \sqrt{x}, x^2 \}$ in $C[3,10]$. Show that the set $S$ is linearly independent in $C[3,10]$.   Proof. Note that the zero vector […]
• Surjective Group Homomorphism to $\Z$ and Direct Product of Abelian Groups Let $G$ be an abelian group and let $f: G\to \Z$ be a surjective group homomorphism. Prove that we have an isomorphism of groups: $G \cong \ker(f)\times \Z.$   Proof. Since $f:G\to \Z$ is surjective, there exists an element $a\in G$ such […]
• Unit Vectors and Idempotent Matrices A square matrix $A$ is called idempotent if $A^2=A$. (a) Let $\mathbf{u}$ be a vector in $\R^n$ with length $1$. Define the matrix $P$ to be $P=\mathbf{u}\mathbf{u}^{\trans}$. Prove that $P$ is an idempotent matrix. (b) Suppose that $\mathbf{u}$ and $\mathbf{v}$ be […]
• A Matrix Equation of a Symmetric Matrix and the Limit of its Solution Let $A$ be a real symmetric $n\times n$ matrix with $0$ as a simple eigenvalue (that is, the algebraic multiplicity of the eigenvalue $0$ is $1$), and let us fix a vector $\mathbf{v}\in \R^n$. (a) Prove that for sufficiently small positive real $\epsilon$, the equation […]
• Diagonalizable by an Orthogonal Matrix Implies a Symmetric Matrix Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix with real number entries. Show that if $A$ is diagonalizable by an orthogonal matrix, then $A$ is a symmetric matrix.   Proof. Suppose that the matrix $A$ is diagonalizable by an orthogonal matrix $Q$. The orthogonality of the […]