Let $G$ be a finite group of order $2n$.
Suppose that exactly a half of $G$ consists of elements of order $2$ and the rest forms a subgroup.
Namely, suppose that $G=S\sqcup H$, where $S$ is the set of all elements of order in $G$, and $H$ is a subgroup of $G$. The cardinalities of $S$ and $H$ are both $n$.

Then prove that $H$ is an abelian normal subgroup of odd order.

Also, the order of $H$ must be odd, otherwise $H$ contains an element of order $2$.
So it remains to prove that $H$ is abelian.

Let $a\in S$ be an element of order $2$.
As $a\notin H$, the left coset $aH$ is different from $H$.
Since the index of $H$ is $2$, we have $aH=G\setminus H=S$.
So for any $h\in H$, the order of $ah$ is $2$.

It follows that we have for any $h\in H$
\[e=(ah)^2=ahah,\]
where $e$ is the identity element in $G$.

Equivalently, we have
\[aha^{-1}=h^{-1} \tag{*}\]
for any $h\in H$.
(Remark that $a=a^{-1}$ as the order of $a$ is $2$.)

Using this relation, for any $h, k \in H$, we have
\begin{align*}
(hk)^{-1}&\stackrel{(*)}{=} a(hk)a^{-1}\\
&=(aha^{-1})(aka^{-1})\\
&\stackrel{(*)}{=}h^{-1}k^{-1}=(kh)^{-1}.
\end{align*}

As a result, we obtain $hk=kh$ for any $h, k$.
Hence the subgroup $H$ is abelian.

Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups and its application
In this post, we study the Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups, and as an application we solve the following problem.
Problem.
Let $G$ be a finite abelian group of order $n$.
If $n$ is the product of distinct prime numbers, then prove that $G$ is isomorphic […]

Any Subgroup of Index 2 in a Finite Group is Normal
Show that any subgroup of index $2$ in a group is a normal subgroup.
Hint.
Left (right) cosets partition the group into disjoint sets.
Consider both left and right cosets.
Proof.
Let $H$ be a subgroup of index $2$ in a group $G$.
Let $e \in G$ be the identity […]

Group of Order 18 is Solvable
Let $G$ be a finite group of order $18$.
Show that the group $G$ is solvable.
Definition
Recall that a group $G$ is said to be solvable if $G$ has a subnormal series
\[\{e\}=G_0 \triangleleft G_1 \triangleleft G_2 \triangleleft \cdots \triangleleft G_n=G\]
such […]

Group of Order $pq$ Has a Normal Sylow Subgroup and Solvable
Let $p, q$ be prime numbers such that $p>q$.
If a group $G$ has order $pq$, then show the followings.
(a) The group $G$ has a normal Sylow $p$-subgroup.
(b) The group $G$ is solvable.
Definition/Hint
For (a), apply Sylow's theorem. To review Sylow's theorem, […]

Abelian Group and Direct Product of Its Subgroups
Let $G$ be a finite abelian group of order $mn$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers.
Then show that there exists unique subgroups $G_1$ of order $m$ and $G_2$ of order $n$ such that $G\cong G_1 \times G_2$.
Hint.
Consider […]

The Index of the Center of a Non-Abelian $p$-Group is Divisible by $p^2$
Let $p$ be a prime number.
Let $G$ be a non-abelian $p$-group.
Show that the index of the center of $G$ is divisible by $p^2$.
Proof.
Suppose the order of the group $G$ is $p^a$, for some $a \in \Z$.
Let $Z(G)$ be the center of $G$. Since $Z(G)$ is a subgroup of $G$, the order […]

Normal Subgroup Whose Order is Relatively Prime to Its Index
Let $G$ be a finite group and let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$.
Suppose that the order $n$ of $N$ is relatively prime to the index $|G:N|=m$.
(a) Prove that $N=\{a\in G \mid a^n=e\}$.
(b) Prove that $N=\{b^m \mid b\in G\}$.
Proof.
Note that as $n$ and […]

Non-Abelian Group of Order $pq$ and its Sylow Subgroups
Let $G$ be a non-abelian group of order $pq$, where $p, q$ are prime numbers satisfying $q \equiv 1 \pmod p$.
Prove that a $q$-Sylow subgroup of $G$ is normal and the number of $p$-Sylow subgroups are $q$.
Hint.
Use Sylow's theorem. To review Sylow's theorem, check […]