Centralizer, Normalizer, and Center of the Dihedral Group $D_{8}$

Problem 53

Let $D_8$ be the dihedral group of order $8$.
Using the generators and relations, we have
\[D_{8}=\langle r,s \mid r^4=s^2=1, sr=r^{-1}s\rangle.\]

(a) Let $A$ be the subgroup of $D_8$ generated by $r$, that is, $A=\{1,r,r^2,r^3\}$.
Prove that the centralizer $C_{D_8}(A)=A$.

(b) Show that the normalizer $N_{D_8}(A)=D_8$.

(c) Show that the center $Z(D_8)=\langle r^2 \rangle=\{1,r^2\}$, the subgroup generated by $r^2$.

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Dihedral Group and Rotation of the Plane

Problem 52

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $D_{2n}$ be the dihedral group of order $2n$. Using the generators and the relations, the dihedral group $D_{2n}$ is given by
\[D_{2n}=\langle r,s \mid r^n=s^2=1, sr=r^{-1}s\rangle.\] Put $\theta=2 \pi/n$.


(a) Prove that the matrix $\begin{bmatrix}
\cos \theta & -\sin \theta\\
\sin \theta& \cos \theta
\end{bmatrix}$ is the matrix representation of the linear transformation $T$ which rotates the $x$-$y$ plane about the origin in a counterclockwise direction by $\theta$ radians.


(b) Let $\GL_2(\R)$ be the group of all $2 \times 2$ invertible matrices with real entries. Show that the map $\rho: D_{2n} \to \GL_2(\R)$ defined on the generators by
\[ \rho(r)=\begin{bmatrix}
\cos \theta & -\sin \theta\\
\sin \theta& \cos \theta
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and }
\rho(s)=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 1\\
1& 0
\end{bmatrix}\] extends to a homomorphism of $D_{2n}$ into $\GL_2(\R)$.


(c) Determine whether the homomorphism $\rho$ in part (b) is injective and/or surjective.

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All the Eigenvectors of a Matrix Are Eigenvectors of Another Matrix

Problem 51

Let $A$ and $B$ be an $n \times n$ matrices.
Suppose that all the eigenvalues of $A$ are distinct and the matrices $A$ and $B$ commute, that is $AB=BA$.

Then prove that each eigenvector of $A$ is an eigenvector of $B$.

(It could be that each eigenvector is an eigenvector for distinct eigenvalues.)

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Find the Limit of a Matrix

Problem 50

Let
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
\frac{1}{7} & \frac{3}{7} & \frac{3}{7} \\
\frac{3}{7} &\frac{1}{7} &\frac{3}{7} \\
\frac{3}{7} & \frac{3}{7} & \frac{1}{7}
\end{bmatrix}\] be $3 \times 3$ matrix. Find

\[\lim_{n \to \infty} A^n.\]

(Nagoya University Linear Algebra Exam)

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Linearly Independent/Dependent Vectors Question

Problem 48

Let $V$ be an $n$-dimensional vector space over a field $K$.
Suppose that $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ are linearly independent vectors in $V$.

Are the following vectors linearly independent?

\[\mathbf{v}_1+\mathbf{v}_2, \quad \mathbf{v}_2+\mathbf{v}_3, \quad \dots, \quad \mathbf{v}_{k-1}+\mathbf{v}_k, \quad \mathbf{v}_k+\mathbf{v}_1.\]

If it is linearly dependent, give a non-trivial linear combination of these vectors summing up to the zero vector.

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Calculate Determinants of Matrices

Problem 45

Calculate the determinants of the following $n\times n$ matrices.
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 0 & \dots & 0 & 0 &1 \\
1 & 1 & 0 & \dots & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & 1 & 1 & \dots & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
\vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \dots & \dots & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & 0 &\dots & 1 & 1 & 0\\
0 & 0 & 0 &\dots & 0 & 1 & 1
\end{bmatrix}\]

The entries of $A$ is $1$ at the diagonal entries, entries below the diagonal, and $(1, n)$-entry.
The other entries are zero.
\[B=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & 0 & \dots & 0 & 0 & -1 \\
-1 & 1 & 0 & \dots & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
0 & -1 & 1 & \dots & 0 & 0 & 0 \\
\vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \dots & \dots & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & 0 &\dots & -1 & 1 & 0\\
0 & 0 & 0 &\dots & 0 & -1 & 1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

The entries of $B$ is $1$ at the diagonal entries.
The entries below the diagonal and $(1,n)$-entry are $-1$.
The other entries are zero.

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Find a Matrix that Maps Given Vectors to Given Vectors

Problem 44

Suppose that a real matrix $A$ maps each of the following vectors
\[\mathbf{x}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{x}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{x}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
0 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \] into the vectors
\[\mathbf{y}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{y}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
0 \\
3
\end{bmatrix}, \mathbf{y}_3=\begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},\] respectively.
That is, $A\mathbf{x}_i=\mathbf{y}_i$ for $i=1,2,3$.
Find the matrix $A$.

(Kyoto University Exam)
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Find All Matrices Satisfying a Given Relation

Problem 43

Let $a$ and $b$ be two distinct positive real numbers. Define matrices
\[A:=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & a\\
a & 0
\end{bmatrix}, \,\,
B:=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & b\\
b& 0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Find all the pairs $(\lambda, X)$, where $\lambda$ is a real number and $X$ is a non-zero real matrix satisfying the relation
\[AX+XB=\lambda X. \tag{*} \]

 

(The University of Tokyo Linear Algebra Exam)

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Symmetric Matrix and Its Eigenvalues, Eigenspaces, and Eigenspaces

Problem 42

Let $A$ be a $4\times 4$ real symmetric matrix. Suppose that $\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
2 \\
0 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}$ is an eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue $1$ of $A$.
Suppose that the eigenspace for the eigenvalue $2$ is $3$-dimensional.

(a) Find an orthonormal basis for the eigenspace of the eigenvalue $2$ of $A$.

(b) Find $A\mathbf{v}$, where
\[ \mathbf{v}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

 

(The University of Tokyo Linear Algebra Exam)

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Find a Basis of the Subspace of All Vectors that are Perpendicular to the Columns of the Matrix

Problem 40

Find a basis for the subspace $W$ of all vectors in $\R^4$ which are perpendicular to the columns of the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
11 & 12 & 13 & 14 \\
21 &22 & 23 & 24 \\
31 & 32 & 33 & 34 \\
41 & 42 & 43 & 44
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(Harvard University Exam)

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Given the Characteristic Polynomial of a Diagonalizable Matrix, Find the Size of the Matrix, Dimension of Eigenspace

Problem 39

Suppose that $A$ is a diagonalizable matrix with characteristic polynomial
\[f_A(\lambda)=\lambda^2(\lambda-3)(\lambda+2)^3(\lambda-4)^3.\]

(a) Find the size of the matrix $A$.

(b) Find the dimension of $E_4$, the eigenspace corresponding to the eigenvalue $\lambda=4$.

(c) Find the dimension of the kernel(nullspace) of $A$.

(Stanford University Linear Algebra Exam)

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If the Kernel of a Matrix $A$ is Trivial, then $A^T A$ is Invertible

Problem 38

Let $A$ be an $m \times n$ real matrix.
Then the kernel of $A$ is defined as $\ker(A)=\{ x\in \R^n \mid Ax=0 \}$.

The kernel is also called the null space of $A$.
Suppose that $A$ is an $m \times n$ real matrix such that $\ker(A)=0$. Prove that $A^{\trans}A$ is invertible.

(Stanford University Linear Algebra Exam)

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