## Problem 108

Let $\F_p$ be the finite field of $p$ elements, where $p$ is a prime number.
Let $G_n=\GL_n(\F_p)$ be the group of $n\times n$ invertible matrices with entries in the field $\F_p$. As usual in linear algebra, we may regard the elements of $G_n$ as linear transformations on $\F_p^n$, the $n$-dimensional vector space over $\F_p$. Therefore, $G_n$ acts on $\F_p^n$.

Let $e_n \in \F_p^n$ be the vector $(1,0, \dots,0)$.
(The so-called first standard basis vector in $\F_p^n$.)

Find the size of the $G_n$-orbit of $e_n$, and show that $\Stab_{G_n}(e_n)$ has order $|G_{n-1}|\cdot p^{n-1}$.

Conclude by induction that
$|G_n|=p^{n^2}\prod_{i=1}^{n} \left(1-\frac{1}{p^i} \right).$

## Problem 107

For what value(s) of $a$ does the system have nontrivial solutions?
\begin{align*}
&x_1+2x_2+x_3=0\\
&-x_1-x_2+x_3=0\\
& 3x_1+4x_2+ax_3=0.
\end{align*}

## Problem 106

Let $G$ be a finite group of odd order. Assume that $x \in G$ is not the identity element.

Show that $x$ is not conjugate to $x^{-1}$.

## Problem 105

Let $G$ be a finite group of order $n$ and suppose that $p$ is the smallest prime number dividing $n$.

Then prove that any subgroup of index $p$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.

## Problem 104

Test your understanding of basic properties of matrix operations.

There are 10 True or False Quiz Problems.

These 10 problems are very common and essential.
So make sure to understand these and don’t lose a point if any of these is your exam problems.
(These are actual exam problems at the Ohio State University.)

You can take the quiz as many times as you like.

The solutions will be given after completing all the 10 problems.
Click the View question button to see the solutions.

## Problem 103

Find the rank of the following real matrix.
$\begin{bmatrix} a & 1 & 2 \\ 1 &1 &1 \\ -1 & 1 & 1-a \end{bmatrix},$ where $a$ is a real number.

(Kyoto University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 102

Determine whether the following systems of equations (or matrix equations) described below has no solution, one unique solution or infinitely many solutions and justify your answer.

(a) $\left\{ \begin{array}{c} ax+by=c \\ dx+ey=f, \end{array} \right.$ where $a,b,c, d$ are scalars satisfying $a/d=b/e=c/f$.

(b) $A \mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$, where $A$ is a singular matrix.

(c) A homogeneous system of $3$ equations in $4$ unknowns.

(d) $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$, where the row-reduced echelon form of the augmented matrix $[A|\mathbf{b}]$ looks as follows:
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & -1 & 0 \\ 0 &1 & 2 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}.$ (The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 101

For which choice(s) of the constant $k$ is the following matrix invertible?
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 &2 &k \\ 1 & 4 & k^2 \end{bmatrix}.$
(Johns Hopkins University, Linear Algebra Exam)

## Problem 100

Determine whether a group $G$ of the following order is simple or not.

(a) $|G|=100$.
(b) $|G|=200$.

## Problem 99

Prove that the quadratic fields $\Q(\sqrt{2})$ and $\Q(\sqrt{3})$ are not isomorphic.

## Problem 98

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices. Suppose that the matrix product $AB=O$, where $O$ is the $n\times n$ zero matrix.

Is it true that the matrix product with opposite order $BA$ is also the zero matrix?
If so, give a proof. If not, give a counterexample.

## Problem 97

Determine the automorphism group of $\Q(\sqrt[3]{2})$ over $\Q$.

## Problem 96

Let $A$ and $B$ be $2\times 2$ matrices.

Prove or find a counterexample for the statement that $(A-B)(A+B)=A^2-B^2$.

## Problem 95

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group of order $mn$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers.

Then show that there exists unique subgroups $G_1$ of order $m$ and $G_2$ of order $n$ such that $G\cong G_1 \times G_2$.

## Problem 94

Let $H$ be a subgroup of order $2$. Let $N_G(H)$ be the normalizer of $H$ in $G$ and $C_G(H)$ be the centralizer of $H$ in $G$.

(a) Show that $N_G(H)=C_G(H)$.

(b) If $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$, then show that $H$ is a subgroup of the center $Z(G)$ of $G$.

## Problem 93

4 multiple choice questions about possibilities for the solution set of a homogeneous system of linear equations.

The solutions will be given after completing all problems.

## Problem 92

Determine the splitting field and its degree over $\Q$ of the polynomial
$x^4+x^2+1.$ Read solution

## Problem 91

Show that the matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & \alpha\\ 0& 1 \end{bmatrix}$, where $\alpha$ is an element of a field $F$ of characteristic $p>0$ satisfies $A^p=I$ and the matrix is not diagonalizable over $F$ if $\alpha \neq 0$.
## The Polynomial $x^p-2$ is Irreducible Over the Cyclotomic Field of $p$-th Root of Unity
Prove that the polynomial $x^p-2$ for a prime number $p$ is irreducible over the field $\Q(\zeta_p)$, where $\zeta_p$ is a primitive $p$th root of unity.