Determine the values of $x$ so that the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 1 & x \\
1 &x &x \\
x & x & x
\end{bmatrix}\]
is invertible.
For those values of $x$, find the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices, and let the subset $S$ of $V$ be defined by $S=\{A_1, A_2, A_3, A_4\}$, where
\begin{align*}
A_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 2 \\
-1 & 3
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & -1 \\
1 & 4
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A_3=\begin{bmatrix}
-1 & 0 \\
1 & -10
\end{bmatrix}, \quad
A_4=\begin{bmatrix}
3 & 7 \\
-2 & 6
\end{bmatrix}.
\end{align*}
Find a basis of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of vectors in $S$ and find the dimension of $\Span(S)$.

Determine whether the following systems of equations (or matrix equations) described below has no solution, one unique solution or infinitely many solutions and justify your answer.

(a) \[\left\{
\begin{array}{c}
ax+by=c \\
dx+ey=f,
\end{array}
\right.
\]
where $a,b,c, d$ are scalars satisfying $a/d=b/e=c/f$.

(b) $A \mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$, where $A$ is a singular matrix.

(c) A homogeneous system of $3$ equations in $4$ unknowns.

(d) $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$, where the row-reduced echelon form of the augmented matrix $[A|\mathbf{b}]$ looks as follows:
\[\begin{bmatrix}
1 & 0 & -1 & 0 \\
0 &1 & 2 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 0 & 1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Exam) Read solution

Find a basis for the subspace $W$ of all vectors in $\R^4$ which are perpendicular to the columns of the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
11 & 12 & 13 & 14 \\
21 &22 & 23 & 24 \\
31 & 32 & 33 & 34 \\
41 & 42 & 43 & 44
\end{bmatrix}.\]