Tagged: span

Find a Basis of the Subspace Spanned by Four Polynomials of Degree 3 or Less

Problem 607

Let $\calP_3$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $3$ or less.
Let
\[S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\] where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=1+3x+2x^2-x^3 & p_2(x)&=x+x^3\\
p_3(x)&=x+x^2-x^3 & p_4(x)&=3+8x+8x^3.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis $Q$ of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of polynomials in $S$.

(b) For each polynomial in $S$ that is not in $Q$, find the coordinate vector with respect to the basis $Q$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)
 
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The Subspace of Linear Combinations whose Sums of Coefficients are zero

Problem 581

Let $V$ be a vector space over a scalar field $K$.
Let $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ be vectors in $V$ and consider the subset
\[W=\{a_1\mathbf{v}_1+a_2\mathbf{v}_2+\cdots+ a_k\mathbf{v}_k \mid a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k \in K \text{ and } a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_k=0\}.\] So each element of $W$ is a linear combination of vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ such that the sum of the coefficients is zero.

Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

 
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Determine Whether Each Set is a Basis for $\R^3$

Problem 579

Determine whether each of the following sets is a basis for $\R^3$.

(a) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
1 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
-2 \\
1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

(b) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
4 \\
7
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
5 \\
8
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
6 \\
9
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

(c) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
7
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

(d) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
7 \\
4 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
8 \\
6
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
9 \\
10
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

 
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Find a Basis of the Vector Space of Polynomials of Degree 2 or Less Among Given Polynomials

Problem 481

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials with real coefficients of degree $2$ or less.
Let $S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\}$, where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=-1+x+2x^2, \quad p_2(x)=x+3x^2\\
p_3(x)&=1+2x+8x^2, \quad p_4(x)=1+x+x^2.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis of $P_2$ among the vectors of $S$. (Explain why it is a basis of $P_2$.)

(b) Let $B’$ be the basis you obtained in part (a).
For each vector of $S$ which is not in $B’$, find the coordinate vector of it with respect to the basis $B’$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Final Exam Problem)

 
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A Linear Transformation Preserves Exactly Two Lines If and Only If There are Two Real Non-Zero Eigenvalues

Problem 472

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^2$ be a linear transformation and let $A$ be the matrix representation of $T$ with respect to the standard basis of $\R^2$.

Prove that the following two statements are equivalent.

(a) There are exactly two distinct lines $L_1, L_2$ in $\R^2$ passing through the origin that are mapped onto themselves:
\[T(L_1)=L_1 \text{ and } T(L_2)=L_2.\]

(b) The matrix $A$ has two distinct nonzero real eigenvalues.

 
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Subspace Spanned By Cosine and Sine Functions

Problem 435

Let $\calF[0, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real valued functions defined on the interval $[0, 2\pi]$.
Define the map $f:\R^2 \to \calF[0, 2\pi]$ by
\[\left(\, f\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
\alpha \\
\beta
\end{bmatrix} \,\right) \,\right)(x):=\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x.\] We put
\[V:=\im f=\{\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x \in \calF[0, 2\pi] \mid \alpha, \beta \in \R\}.\]

(a) Prove that the map $f$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\cos x, \sin x\}$ is a basis of the vector space $V$.

(c) Prove that the kernel is trivial, that is, $\ker f=\{\mathbf{0}\}$.
(This yields an isomorphism of $\R^2$ and $V$.)

(d) Define a map $g:V \to V$ by
\[g(\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x):=\frac{d}{dx}(\alpha \cos x+ \beta \sin x)=\beta \cos x -\alpha \sin x.\] Prove that the map $g$ is a linear transformation.

(e) Find the matrix representation of the linear transformation $g$ with respect to the basis $\{\cos x, \sin x\}$.

(Kyoto University, Linear Algebra exam problem)

 
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Basis of Span in Vector Space of Polynomials of Degree 2 or Less

Problem 367

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $2$ or less with real coefficients.
Let
\[S=\{1+x+2x^2, \quad x+2x^2, \quad -1, \quad x^2\}\] be the set of four vectors in $P_2$.

Then find a basis of the subspace $\Span(S)$ among the vectors in $S$.

(Linear Algebra Exam Problem, the Ohio State University)
 
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Quiz 10. Find Orthogonal Basis / Find Value of Linear Transformation

Problem 356

(a) Let $S=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2\}$ be the set of the following vectors in $\R^4$.
\[\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{v}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.\] Find an orthogonal basis of the subspace $\Span(S)$ of $\R^4$.

 
(b) Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation such that
\[T(\mathbf{e}_1)=\mathbf{u}_1 \text{ and } T(\mathbf{e}_2)=\mathbf{u}_2,\] where $\{\mathbf{e}_1, \mathbf{e}_2\}$ is the standard unit vectors of $\R^2$ and
\[\mathbf{u}_1=\begin{bmatrix}
5 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \mathbf{u}_2=\begin{bmatrix}
8 \\
2 \\
6
\end{bmatrix}.\] Then find
\[T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
-2
\end{bmatrix} \,\right).\]

 
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Coordinate Vectors and Dimension of Subspaces (Span)

Problem 350

Let $V$ be a vector space over $\R$ and let $B$ be a basis of $V$.
Let $S=\{v_1, v_2, v_3\}$ be a set of vectors in $V$. If the coordinate vectors of these vectors with respect to the basis $B$ is given as follows, then find the dimension of $V$ and the dimension of the span of $S$.
\[[v_1]_B=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, [v_2]_B=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, [v_3]_B=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

 
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Given All Eigenvalues and Eigenspaces, Compute a Matrix Product

Problem 189

Let $C$ be a $4 \times 4$ matrix with all eigenvalues $\lambda=2, -1$ and eigensapces
\[E_2=\Span\left \{\quad \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix} \quad\right \} \text{ and } E_{-1}=\Span\left \{ \quad\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
1 \\
1
\end{bmatrix},\quad \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix} \quad\right\}.\]

Calculate $C^4 \mathbf{u}$ for $\mathbf{u}=\begin{bmatrix}
6 \\
8 \\
6 \\
9
\end{bmatrix}$ if possible. Explain why if it is not possible!

(The Ohio State University Linear Algebra Exam Problem)
 
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Vector Space of Polynomials and Coordinate Vectors

Problem 157

Let $P_2$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree two or less.
Consider the subset in $P_2$
\[Q=\{ p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},\] where
\begin{align*}
&p_1(x)=x^2+2x+1, &p_2(x)=2x^2+3x+1, \\
&p_3(x)=2x^2, &p_4(x)=2x^2+x+1.
\end{align*}

(a) Use the basis $B=\{1, x, x^2\}$ of $P_2$, give the coordinate vectors of the vectors in $Q$.

(b) Find a basis of the span $\Span(Q)$ consisting of vectors in $Q$.

(c) For each vector in $Q$ which is not a basis vector you obtained in (b), express the vector as a linear combination of basis vectors.

 
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Show the Subset of the Vector Space of Polynomials is a Subspace and Find its Basis

Problem 153

Let $P_3$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all degree three or less polynomial with real number coefficient.
Let $W$ be the following subset of $P_3$.
\[W=\{p(x) \in P_3 \mid p'(-1)=0 \text{ and } p^{\prime\prime}(1)=0\}.\] Here $p'(x)$ is the first derivative of $p(x)$ and $p^{\prime\prime}(x)$ is the second derivative of $p(x)$.

Show that $W$ is a subspace of $P_3$ and find a basis for $W$.

 
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Linear Independent Vectors and the Vector Space Spanned By Them

Problem 141

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $K$. Let $\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n$ be linearly independent vectors in $V$. Let $U$ be the subspace of $V$ spanned by these vectors, that is, $U=\Span \{\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n\}$.
Let $\mathbf{u}_{n+1}\in V$. Show that $\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n, \mathbf{u}_{n+1}$ are linearly independent if and only if $\mathbf{u}_{n+1} \not \in U$.

 
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Find a Basis and the Dimension of the Subspace of the 4-Dimensional Vector Space

Problem 131

Let $V$ be the following subspace of the $4$-dimensional vector space $\R^4$.
\[V:=\left\{ \quad\begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
x_3 \\
x_4
\end{bmatrix} \in \R^4
\quad \middle| \quad
x_1-x_2+x_3-x_4=0 \quad\right\}.\] Find a basis of the subspace $V$ and its dimension.

 
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