Let $x, y$ be arbitrary elements in $R$. We want to show that $xy=yx$.
Consider the identity
\[y(xy)=(yx)y.\]
This can be written as $ab=ca$ if we put $a=y, b=xy, c=yx$.

It follows from the assumption that we have $b=c$.
Equivalently, we have $xy=yx$.

As this is true for any $x, y\in R$, we conclude that $R$ is a commutative ring.

If the Quotient Ring is a Field, then the Ideal is Maximal
Let $R$ be a ring with unit $1\neq 0$.
Prove that if $M$ is an ideal of $R$ such that $R/M$ is a field, then $M$ is a maximal ideal of $R$.
(Do not assume that the ring $R$ is commutative.)
Proof.
Let $I$ be an ideal of $R$ such that
\[M \subset I \subset […]

Is the Set of Nilpotent Element an Ideal?
Is it true that a set of nilpotent elements in a ring $R$ is an ideal of $R$?
If so, prove it. Otherwise give a counterexample.
Proof.
We give a counterexample.
Let $R$ be the noncommutative ring of $2\times 2$ matrices with real […]

Ideal Quotient (Colon Ideal) is an Ideal
Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Let $S$ be a subset of $R$ and let $I$ be an ideal of $I$.
We define the subset
\[(I:S):=\{ a \in R \mid aS\subset I\}.\]
Prove that $(I:S)$ is an ideal of $R$. This ideal is called the ideal quotient, or colon ideal.
Proof.
Let $a, […]

If Every Proper Ideal of a Commutative Ring is a Prime Ideal, then It is a Field.
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$.
Prove that if every proper ideal of $R$ is a prime ideal, then $R$ is a field.
Proof.
As the zero ideal $(0)$ of $R$ is a proper ideal, it is a prime ideal by assumption.
Hence $R=R/\{0\}$ is an integral […]

Equivalent Conditions For a Prime Ideal in a Commutative Ring
Let $R$ be a commutative ring and let $P$ be an ideal of $R$. Prove that the following statements are equivalent:
(a) The ideal $P$ is a prime ideal.
(b) For any two ideals $I$ and $J$, if $IJ \subset P$ then we have either $I \subset P$ or $J \subset P$.
Proof. […]

Prime Ideal is Irreducible in a Commutative Ring
Let $R$ be a commutative ring. An ideal $I$ of $R$ is said to be irreducible if it cannot be written as an intersection of two ideals of $R$ which are strictly larger than $I$.
Prove that if $\frakp$ is a prime ideal of the commutative ring $R$, then $\frakp$ is […]

Nilpotent Element a in a Ring and Unit Element $1-ab$
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1 \neq 0$.
An element $a\in R$ is called nilpotent if $a^n=0$ for some positive integer $n$.
Then prove that if $a$ is a nilpotent element of $R$, then $1-ab$ is a unit for all $b \in R$.
We give two proofs.
Proof 1.
Since $a$ […]

Characteristic of an Integral Domain is 0 or a Prime Number
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Show that if $R$ is an integral domain, then the characteristic of $R$ is either $0$ or a prime number $p$.
Definition of the characteristic of a ring.
The characteristic of a commutative ring $R$ with $1$ is defined as […]