# Category: Linear Algebra

## Problem 447

Let $A$ be a square matrix such that
$A^{\trans}A=A,$ where $A^{\trans}$ is the transpose matrix of $A$.
Prove that $A$ is idempotent, that is, $A^2=A$. Also, prove that $A$ is a symmetric matrix.

## Problem 442

Consider the following system of linear equations
\begin{align*}
2x+3y+z&=-1\\
3x+3y+z&=1\\
2x+4y+z&=-2.
\end{align*}

(a) Find the coefficient matrix $A$ for this system.

(b) Find the inverse matrix of the coefficient matrix found in (a)

(c) Solve the system using the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$.

## Problem 441

Let $A$ and $B$ be $m\times n$ matrices.
Prove that
$\rk(A+B) \leq \rk(A)+\rk(B).$

## Problem 440

Let $U$ and $V$ be finite dimensional subspaces in a vector space over a scalar field $K$.
Then prove that
$\dim(U+V) \leq \dim(U)+\dim(V).$

## Problem 439

Is every diagonalizable matrix invertible?

## Problem 438

Determine whether each of the following statements is True or False.

(a) If $A$ and $B$ are $n \times n$ matrices, and $P$ is an invertible $n \times n$ matrix such that $A=PBP^{-1}$, then $\det(A)=\det(B)$.

(b) If the characteristic polynomial of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is
$p(\lambda)=(\lambda-1)^n+2,$ then $A$ is invertible.

(c) If $A^2$ is an invertible $n\times n$ matrix, then $A^3$ is also invertible.

(d) If $A$ is a $3\times 3$ matrix such that $\det(A)=7$, then $\det(2A^{\trans}A^{-1})=2$.

(e) If $\mathbf{v}$ is an eigenvector of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_1$, and if $\mathbf{w}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_2$, then $\mathbf{v}+\mathbf{w}$ is an eigenvector of $A$ with corresponding eigenvalue $\lambda_1+\lambda_2$.

(Stanford University, Linear Algebra Exam Problem)

## Problem 435

Let $\calF[0, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all real valued functions defined on the interval $[0, 2\pi]$.
Define the map $f:\R^2 \to \calF[0, 2\pi]$ by
$\left(\, f\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} \alpha \\ \beta \end{bmatrix} \,\right) \,\right)(x):=\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x.$ We put
$V:=\im f=\{\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x \in \calF[0, 2\pi] \mid \alpha, \beta \in \R\}.$

(a) Prove that the map $f$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Prove that the set $\{\cos x, \sin x\}$ is a basis of the vector space $V$.

(c) Prove that the kernel is trivial, that is, $\ker f=\{\mathbf{0}\}$.
(This yields an isomorphism of $\R^2$ and $V$.)

(d) Define a map $g:V \to V$ by
$g(\alpha \cos x + \beta \sin x):=\frac{d}{dx}(\alpha \cos x+ \beta \sin x)=\beta \cos x -\alpha \sin x.$ Prove that the map $g$ is a linear transformation.

(e) Find the matrix representation of the linear transformation $g$ with respect to the basis $\{\cos x, \sin x\}$.

(Kyoto University, Linear Algebra exam problem)

## Problem 433

Let $P_3$ be the vector space of polynomials of degree $3$ or less with real coefficients.

(a) Prove that the differentiation is a linear transformation. That is, prove that the map $T:P_3 \to P_3$ defined by
$T\left(\, f(x) \,\right)=\frac{d}{dx} f(x)$ for any $f(x)\in P_3$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Let $B=\{1, x, x^2, x^3\}$ be a basis of $P_3$. With respect to the basis $B$, find the matrix representation of the linear transformation $T$ in part (a).

## Problem 430

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $K$.
If $W_1$ and $W_2$ are subspaces of $V$, then prove that the subset
$W_1+W_2:=\{\mathbf{x}+\mathbf{y} \mid \mathbf{x}\in W_1, \mathbf{y}\in W_2\}$ is a subspace of the vector space $V$.

## Problem 429

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ idempotent matrix, that is, $A^2=A$. Then prove that $A$ is diagonalizable.

## Problem 428

Let $T:\R^3 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation and suppose that its matrix representation with respect to the standard basis is given by the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 2 \\ 0 &3 &0 \\ 4 & 0 & 5 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Prove that the linear transformation $T$ sends points on the $x$-$z$ plane to points on the $x$-$z$ plane.

(b) Prove that the restriction of $T$ on the $x$-$z$ plane is a linear transformation.

(c) Find the matrix representation of the linear transformation obtained in part (b) with respect to the standard basis
$\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$ of the $x$-$z$ plane.

## Problem 427

Let $W_1, W_2$ be subspaces of a vector space $V$. Then prove that $W_1 \cup W_2$ is a subspace of $V$ if and only if $W_1 \subset W_2$ or $W_2 \subset W_1$.

## Problem 426

A square matrix $A$ is called idempotent if $A^2=A$.

(a) Suppose $A$ is an $n \times n$ idempotent matrix and let $I$ be the $n\times n$ identity matrix. Prove that the matrix $I-A$ is an idempotent matrix.

(b) Assume that $A$ is an $n\times n$ nonzero idempotent matrix. Then determine all integers $k$ such that the matrix $I-kA$ is idempotent.

(c) Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices satisfying
$AB=A \text{ and } BA=B.$ Then prove that $A$ is an idempotent matrix.

## Problem 425

(a) Prove that each complex $n\times n$ matrix $A$ can be written as
$A=B+iC,$ where $B$ and $C$ are Hermitian matrices.

(b) Write the complex matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} i & 6\\ 2-i& 1+i \end{bmatrix}$ as a sum $A=B+iC$, where $B$ and $C$ are Hermitian matrices.

## Problem 424

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices.
Suppose that $A$ and $B$ have the same eigenvalues $\lambda_1, \dots, \lambda_n$ with the same corresponding eigenvectors $\mathbf{x}_1, \dots, \mathbf{x}_n$.
Prove that if the eigenvectors $\mathbf{x}_1, \dots, \mathbf{x}_n$ are linearly independent, then $A=B$.

## Problem 423

Determine all $2\times 2$ matrices $A$ such that $A$ has eigenvalues $2$ and $-1$ with corresponding eigenvectors
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } \begin{bmatrix} 2 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix},$ respectively.

## Problem 421

Find the inverse matrix of the matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 2 \\ 9 &2 &0 \\ 5 & 0 & 3 \end{bmatrix}$ using the Cayley–Hamilton theorem.

## Problem 419

(a) Let $A$ be a real orthogonal $n\times n$ matrix. Prove that the length (magnitude) of each eigenvalue of $A$ is $1$.

(b) Let $A$ be a real orthogonal $3\times 3$ matrix and suppose that the determinant of $A$ is $1$. Then prove that $A$ has $1$ as an eigenvalue.

## Problem 407

Let $n$ be an odd integer and let $A$ be an $n\times n$ real matrix.
Prove that the matrix $A$ has at least one real eigenvalue.

## Problem 406

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix. Suppose that $\mathbf{y}$ is a nonzero row vector such that
$\mathbf{y}A=\mathbf{y}.$ (Here a row vector means a $1\times n$ matrix.)
Prove that there is a nonzero column vector $\mathbf{x}$ such that
$A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{x}.$ (Here a column vector means an $n \times 1$ matrix.)