Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices.
Suppose that $A$ and $B$ have the same eigenvalues $\lambda_1, \dots, \lambda_n$ with the same corresponding eigenvectors $\mathbf{x}_1, \dots, \mathbf{x}_n$.
Prove that if the eigenvectors $\mathbf{x}_1, \dots, \mathbf{x}_n$ are linearly independent, then $A=B$.

Since $A$ and $B$ have $n$ linearly independent eigenvectors $\mathbf{x}_1, \dots, \mathbf{x}_n$, they are diagonalizable.
Specifically, if we put $S=[\mathbf{x}_1, \dots, \mathbf{x}_n]$.

Then $S$ is invertible (as column vectors of $S$ are linearly independent) and we have
\[S^{-1}AS=D \text{ and } S^{-1}BS=D,\]
where $D$ is the diagonal matrix whose diagonal entries are eigenvalues:
\[D=\begin{bmatrix}
\lambda_1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\
0 & \lambda_2 & \cdots & 0 \\
\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & 0 & \cdots & \lambda_n
\end{bmatrix}.\]
It follows that we have
\[S^{-1}AS=D=S^{-1}BS,\]
and hence $A=B$. This completes the proof.

Diagonalize the 3 by 3 Matrix if it is Diagonalizable
Determine whether the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
0 & 1 & 0 \\
-1 &0 &0 \\
0 & 0 & 2
\end{bmatrix}\]
is diagonalizable.
If it is diagonalizable, then find the invertible matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.
How to […]

Diagonalize a 2 by 2 Symmetric Matrix
Diagonalize the $2\times 2$ matrix $A=\begin{bmatrix}
2 & -1\\
-1& 2
\end{bmatrix}$ by finding a nonsingular matrix $S$ and a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $S^{-1}AS=D$.
Solution.
The characteristic polynomial $p(t)$ of the matrix $A$ […]

How to Diagonalize a Matrix. Step by Step Explanation.
In this post, we explain how to diagonalize a matrix if it is diagonalizable.
As an example, we solve the following problem.
Diagonalize the matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
4 & -3 & -3 \\
3 &-2 &-3 \\
-1 & 1 & 2
\end{bmatrix}\]
by finding a nonsingular […]

Diagonalize the $2\times 2$ Hermitian Matrix by a Unitary Matrix
Consider the Hermitian matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & i\\
-i& 1
\end{bmatrix}.\]
(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.
(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, find the eigenvectors.
(c) Diagonalize the Hermitian matrix $A$ by a unitary matrix. Namely, find a diagonal matrix […]

Diagonalize the Complex Symmetric 3 by 3 Matrix with $\sin x$ and $\cos x$
Consider the complex matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
\sqrt{2}\cos x & i \sin x & 0 \\
i \sin x &0 &-i \sin x \\
0 & -i \sin x & -\sqrt{2} \cos x
\end{bmatrix},\]
where $x$ is a real number between $0$ and $2\pi$.
Determine for which values of $x$ the […]

True or False. Every Diagonalizable Matrix is Invertible
Is every diagonalizable matrix invertible?
Solution.
The answer is No.
Counterexample
We give a counterexample. Consider the $2\times 2$ zero matrix.
The zero matrix is a diagonal matrix, and thus it is diagonalizable.
However, the zero matrix is not […]

Diagonalize the Upper Triangular Matrix and Find the Power of the Matrix
Consider the $2\times 2$ complex matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & b-a\\
0& b
\end{bmatrix}.\]
(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.
(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, determine the eigenvectors.
(c) Diagonalize the matrix $A$.
(d) Using the result of the […]