# Category: Linear Algebra

## Problem 607

Let $\calP_3$ be the vector space of all polynomials of degree $3$ or less.
Let
$S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x), p_4(x)\},$ where
\begin{align*}
p_1(x)&=1+3x+2x^2-x^3 & p_2(x)&=x+x^3\\
p_3(x)&=x+x^2-x^3 & p_4(x)&=3+8x+8x^3.
\end{align*}

(a) Find a basis $Q$ of the span $\Span(S)$ consisting of polynomials in $S$.

(b) For each polynomial in $S$ that is not in $Q$, find the coordinate vector with respect to the basis $Q$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 606

Let $V$ be a vector space and $B$ be a basis for $V$.
Let $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ be vectors in $V$.
Suppose that $A$ is the matrix whose columns are the coordinate vectors of $\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5$ with respect to the basis $B$.

After applying the elementary row operations to $A$, we obtain the following matrix in reduced row echelon form
$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 2 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 3 & 0 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) What is the dimension of $V$?

(b) What is the dimension of $\Span\{\mathbf{w}_1, \mathbf{w}_2, \mathbf{w}_3, \mathbf{w}_4, \mathbf{w}_5\}$?

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 605

Let $T:\R^2 \to \R^3$ be a linear transformation such that
$T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} 3 \\ 2 \end{bmatrix} \,\right) =\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 3 \end{bmatrix} \text{ and } T\left(\, \begin{bmatrix} 4\\ 3 \end{bmatrix} \,\right) =\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ -5 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find the matrix representation of $T$ (with respect to the standard basis for $\R^2$).

(b) Determine the rank and nullity of $T$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 604

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 &1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 2 & 2 & 2\\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find a basis for the null space $\calN(A)$.

(b) Find a basis of the range $\calR(A)$.

(c) Find a basis of the row space for $A$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 603

Let $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$ be the vector space of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.
Consider the functions $f(x)=\sin^2(x) \text{ and } g(x)=\cos^2(x)$ in $C[-2\pi, 2\pi]$.

Prove or disprove that the functions $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ are linearly independent.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 602

Let $W$ be a subspace of $\R^4$ with a basis
$\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \end{bmatrix} \,\right\}.$

Find an orthonormal basis of $W$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 601

Let $V$ be the vector space of all $2\times 2$ matrices whose entries are real numbers.
Let
$W=\left\{\, A\in V \quad \middle | \quad A=\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ c& -a \end{bmatrix} \text{ for any } a, b, c\in \R \,\right\}.$

(a) Show that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find a basis of $W$.

(c) Find the dimension of $W$.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm)

## Problem 600

Let $\mathbf{v}_1=\begin{bmatrix} 2/3 \\ 2/3 \\ 1/3 \end{bmatrix}$ be a vector in $\R^3$.

Find an orthonormal basis for $\R^3$ containing the vector $\mathbf{v}_1$.

## Problem 599

Let $A$ be a real symmetric matrix whose diagonal entries are all positive real numbers.

Is it true that the all of the diagonal entries of the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$ are also positive?
If so, prove it. Otherwise, give a counterexample.

## Problem 597

Let $F:\R^2\to \R^2$ be the function that maps each vector in $\R^2$ to its reflection with respect to $x$-axis.

Determine the formula for the function $F$ and prove that $F$ is a linear transformation.

## Problem 596

Let
$A=\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ -b& a \end{bmatrix}$ be a $2\times 2$ matrix, where $a, b$ are real numbers.
Suppose that $b\neq 0$.

Prove that the matrix $A$ does not have real eigenvalues.

## Problem 595

Let $U$ and $V$ be subspaces of the $n$-dimensional vector space $\R^n$.

Prove that the intersection $U\cap V$ is also a subspace of $\R^n$.

## Problem 593

We fix a nonzero vector $\mathbf{a}$ in $\R^3$ and define a map $T:\R^3\to \R^3$ by
$T(\mathbf{v})=\mathbf{a}\times \mathbf{v}$ for all $\mathbf{v}\in \R^3$.
Here the right-hand side is the cross product of $\mathbf{a}$ and $\mathbf{v}$.

(a) Prove that $T:\R^3\to \R^3$ is a linear transformation.

(b) Determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of $T$.

## Problem 592

Let $\R^n$ be an inner product space with inner product $\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\rangle=\mathbf{x}^{\trans}\mathbf{y}$ for $\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\in \R^n$.

A linear transformation $T:\R^n \to \R^n$ is called orthogonal transformation if for all $\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\in \R^n$, it satisfies
$\langle T(\mathbf{x}), T(\mathbf{y})\rangle=\langle\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y} \rangle.$

Prove that if $T:\R^n\to \R^n$ is an orthogonal transformation, then $T$ is an isomorphism.

## Problem 591

Let $S=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k\}$ be a set of nonzero vectors in $\R^n$.
Suppose that $S$ is an orthogonal set.

(a) Show that $S$ is linearly independent.

(b) If $k=n$, then prove that $S$ is a basis for $\R^n$.

## Problem 590

Let $C[-1, 1]$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[-1, 1]$. Let
$V:=\{f(x)\in C[-1,1] \mid f(x)=a e^x+b e^{2x}+c e^{3x}, a, b, c\in \R\}$ be a subset in $C[-1, 1]$.

(a) Prove that $V$ is a subspace of $C[-1, 1]$.

(b) Prove that the set $B=\{e^x, e^{2x}, e^{3x}\}$ is a basis of $V$.

(c) Prove that
$B’=\{e^x-2e^{3x}, e^x+e^{2x}+2e^{3x}, 3e^{2x}+e^{3x}\}$ is a basis for $V$.

## Problem 588

Let $P_2$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all polynomials of degree $2$ or less.
Let $S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x)\}$, where
$p_1(x)=x^2+1, \quad p_2(x)=6x^2+x+2, \quad p_3(x)=3x^2+x.$

(a) Use the basis $B=\{x^2, x, 1\}$ of $P_2$ to prove that the set $S$ is a basis for $P_2$.

(b) Find the coordinate vector of $p(x)=x^2+2x+3\in P_2$ with respect to the basis $S$.

## Problem 587

Let $A$ and $B$ be square matrices such that they commute each other: $AB=BA$.
Assume that $A-B$ is a nilpotent matrix.

Then prove that the eigenvalues of $A$ and $B$ are the same.

## Problem 586

Let $V$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all real $2\times 2$ matrices.
Let $W$ be the subset of $V$ consisting of all symmetric matrices.

(a) Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

(b) Find a basis of $W$.

(c) Determine the dimension of $W$.

## Problem 585

Consider the Hermitian matrix
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & i\\ -i& 1 \end{bmatrix}.$

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, find the eigenvectors.

(c) Diagonalize the Hermitian matrix $A$ by a unitary matrix. Namely, find a diagonal matrix $D$ and a unitary matrix $U$ such that $U^{-1}AU=D$.