# Find the Inverse Matrix of a $3\times 3$ Matrix if Exists ## Problem 299

Find the inverse matrix of
$A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 2 \\ 0 &0 &1 \\ 1 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$ if it exists. If you think there is no inverse matrix of $A$, then give a reason.

(The Ohio State University, Linear Algebra Midterm Exam Problem) Add to solve later

## Solution.

To check whether the matrix $A$ has the inverse matrix and to find the inverse matrix if exist at once, we consider the augmented matrix $[A\mid I]$, where $I$ is the $3\times 3$ identity matrix.
We apply the elementary row operations as follows.
\begin{align*}
[A\mid I] &= \left[\begin{array}{rrr|rrr}
1 & 1 & 2 & 1 &0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\
1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\
\end{array} \right] \xrightarrow{R_3-R_1}
\left[\begin{array}{rrr|rrr}
1 & 1 & 2 & 1 &0 & 0 \\
0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\
0 & -1 & -1 & -1 & 0 & 1 \\
\end{array} \right]\10pt] &\xrightarrow{-R_3} \left[\begin{array}{rrr|rrr} 1 & 1 & 2 & 1 &0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & -1 \\ \end{array} \right] \xrightarrow{R_2 \leftrightarrow R_3} \left[\begin{array}{rrr|rrr} 1 & 1 & 2 & 1 &0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & -1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{array} \right]\\[10pt] &\xrightarrow{R_1-R_2} \left[\begin{array}{rrr|rrr} 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 &0 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 0 & -1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{array} \right] \xrightarrow{\substack{R_1-R_3\\ R_2-R_3}} \left[\begin{array}{rrr|rrr} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 &-1 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & -1 & -1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{array} \right]. \end{align*} The left 3\times 3 matrix part became the identity matrix I, thus A is invertible (since it is row equivalent to I), and the inverse matrix A^{-1} is given by the right 3\times 3 matrix. Thus we have \[A^{-1}=\begin{bmatrix} 0 & -1 & 1 \\ 1 &-1 &-1 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.

### Double check

Once you obtained the inverse matrix $A^{-1}$, then you should check that whether $A^{-1}A$ is the identity matrix.
If not, it means that you did a computational mistake somewhere.

## Midterm 1 problems and solutions

This is one of the midterm exam 1 problems of linear algebra (Math 2568) at the Ohio State University.

The following list is the problems and solutions/proofs of midterm exam 1 of linear algebra at the Ohio State University in Spring 2017.

1. Problem 1 and its solution: Possibilities for the solution set of a system of linear equations
2. Problem 2 and its solution: The vector form of the general solution of a system
3. Problem 3 and its solution: Matrix operations (transpose and inverse matrices)
4. Problem 4 and its solution: Linear combination
5. Problem 5 and its solution (The current page): Inverse matrix
6. Problem 6 and its solution: Nonsingular matrix satisfying a relation
7. Problem 7 and its solution: Solve a system by the inverse matrix
8. Problem 8 and its solution:A proof problem about nonsingular matrix

## Related Question.

Problem.
Find the inverse matrices of the following matrices if they exist.
$\text{(a)} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3 & -2 \\ 2 &3 &0 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}, \quad \text{(b)} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 2 \\ -1 &-3 &2 \\ 3 & 6 & -2 \end{bmatrix}.$

The solutions are given in the post↴
Find the Inverse Matrices if Matrices are Invertible by Elementary Row Operations Add to solve later

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