Let $G$ be a group. Suppose that $H_1, H_2, N_1, N_2$ are all normal subgroup of $G$, $H_1 \lhd N_2$, and $H_2 \lhd N_2$.
Suppose also that $N_1/H_1$ is isomorphic to $N_2/H_2$. Then prove or disprove that $N_1$ is isomorphic to $N_2$.

We give a counterexample.
Let $G=\Z \times \Zmod{p} \times \Zmod{q}$, where $p$ and $q$ are distinct prime numbers. Then $G$ is an abelian group and thus any subgroups are normal.
We denote $e$ for identity elements of possibly different groups.

Let
\[N_1=\Z \times \Zmod{p} \times \{e\} \subset G\]
and
\[N_2=\Z \times \{e\}\times \Zmod{q}\subset G.\]
Also define subgroups
\[H_1=q\Z \times \{e\} \times \{e\} \subset N_1\] and
\[H_2=p\Z \times \{e\} \times \{e\} \subset N_2.\]
Then both $H_1$ and $H_2$ are isomorphic to $\Z$.

The quotients groups $N_1/H_1$ and $N_2/H_2$ are both isomorphic to $\Zmod{p} \times \Zmod{q}$.

Since $p$ and $q$ are distinct primes, the groups $N_1$ and $N_2$ are not isomorphic.
Therefore, we disprove the claim.

Commutator Subgroup and Abelian Quotient Group
Let $G$ be a group and let $D(G)=[G,G]$ be the commutator subgroup of $G$.
Let $N$ be a subgroup of $G$.
Prove that the subgroup $N$ is normal in $G$ and $G/N$ is an abelian group if and only if $N \supset D(G)$.
Definitions.
Recall that for any $a, b \in G$, the […]

Two Quotients Groups are Abelian then Intersection Quotient is Abelian
Let $K, N$ be normal subgroups of a group $G$. Suppose that the quotient groups $G/K$ and $G/N$ are both abelian groups.
Then show that the group
\[G/(K \cap N)\]
is also an abelian group.
Hint.
We use the following fact to prove the problem.
Lemma: For a […]

The Preimage of a Normal Subgroup Under a Group Homomorphism is Normal
Let $G$ and $G'$ be groups and let $f:G \to G'$ be a group homomorphism.
If $H'$ is a normal subgroup of the group $G'$, then show that $H=f^{-1}(H')$ is a normal subgroup of the group $G$.
Proof.
We prove that $H$ is normal in $G$. (The fact that $H$ is a subgroup […]

Image of a Normal Subgroup Under a Surjective Homomorphism is a Normal Subgroup
Let $f: H \to G$ be a surjective group homomorphism from a group $H$ to a group $G$.
Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $H$. Show that the image $f(N)$ is normal in $G$.
Proof.
To show that $f(N)$ is normal, we show that $gf(N)g^{-1}=f(N)$ for any $g \in […]

A Subgroup of the Smallest Prime Divisor Index of a Group is Normal
Let $G$ be a finite group of order $n$ and suppose that $p$ is the smallest prime number dividing $n$.
Then prove that any subgroup of index $p$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.
Hint.
Consider the action of the group $G$ on the left cosets $G/H$ by left […]

Subgroup of Finite Index Contains a Normal Subgroup of Finite Index
Let $G$ be a group and let $H$ be a subgroup of finite index. Then show that there exists a normal subgroup $N$ of $G$ such that $N$ is of finite index in $G$ and $N\subset H$.
Proof.
The group $G$ acts on the set of left cosets $G/H$ by left multiplication.
Hence […]

Quotient Group of Abelian Group is Abelian
Let $G$ be an abelian group and let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$.
Then prove that the quotient group $G/N$ is also an abelian group.
Proof.
Each element of $G/N$ is a coset $aN$ for some $a\in G$.
Let $aN, bN$ be arbitrary elements of $G/N$, where $a, b\in […]

A Group Homomorphism is Injective if and only if Monic
Let $f:G\to G'$ be a group homomorphism. We say that $f$ is monic whenever we have $fg_1=fg_2$, where $g_1:K\to G$ and $g_2:K \to G$ are group homomorphisms for some group $K$, we have $g_1=g_2$.
Then prove that a group homomorphism $f: G \to G'$ is injective if and only if it is […]