Tagged: group homomorphism

The Set of Square Elements in the Multiplicative Group $(\Zmod{p})^*$

Problem 616

Suppose that $p$ is a prime number greater than $3$.
Consider the multiplicative group $G=(\Zmod{p})^*$ of order $p-1$.

(a) Prove that the set of squares $S=\{x^2\mid x\in G\}$ is a subgroup of the multiplicative group $G$.

(b) Determine the index $[G : S]$.

(c) Assume that $-1\notin S$. Then prove that for each $a\in G$ we have either $a\in S$ or $-a\in S$.

 
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Group Homomorphism from $\Z/n\Z$ to $\Z/m\Z$ When $m$ Divides $n$

Problem 613

Let $m$ and $n$ be positive integers such that $m \mid n$.

(a) Prove that the map $\phi:\Zmod{n} \to \Zmod{m}$ sending $a+n\Z$ to $a+m\Z$ for any $a\in \Z$ is well-defined.

(b) Prove that $\phi$ is a group homomorphism.

(c) Prove that $\phi$ is surjective.

(d) Determine the group structure of the kernel of $\phi$.

 
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A Group Homomorphism that Factors though Another Group

Problem 490

Let $G, H, K$ be groups. Let $f:G\to K$ be a group homomorphism and let $\pi:G\to H$ be a surjective group homomorphism such that the kernel of $\pi$ is included in the kernel of $f$: $\ker(\pi) \subset \ker(f)$.

Define a map $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ as follows.
For each $h\in H$, there exists $g\in G$ such that $\pi(g)=h$ since $\pi:G\to H$ is surjective.
Define $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ by $\tilde{f}(h)=f(g)$.

(a) Prove that the map $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ is well-defined.

(b) Prove that $\tilde{f}:H\to K$ is a group homomorphism.

 
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Injective Group Homomorphism that does not have Inverse Homomorphism

Problem 443

Let $A=B=\Z$ be the additive group of integers.
Define a map $\phi: A\to B$ by sending $n$ to $2n$ for any integer $n\in A$.

(a) Prove that $\phi$ is a group homomorphism.

(b) Prove that $\phi$ is injective.

(c) Prove that there does not exist a group homomorphism $\psi:B \to A$ such that $\psi \circ \phi=\id_A$.

 
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The Additive Group $\R$ is Isomorphic to the Multiplicative Group $\R^{+}$ by Exponent Function

Problem 322

Let $\R=(\R, +)$ be the additive group of real numbers and let $\R^{\times}=(\R\setminus\{0\}, \cdot)$ be the multiplicative group of real numbers.

(a) Prove that the map $\exp:\R \to \R^{\times}$ defined by
\[\exp(x)=e^x\] is an injective group homomorphism.

(b) Prove that the additive group $\R$ is isomorphic to the multiplicative group
\[\R^{+}=\{x \in \R \mid x > 0\}.\]

 
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The Center of the Heisenberg Group Over a Field $F$ is Isomorphic to the Additive Group $F$

Problem 283

Let $F$ be a field and let
\[H(F)=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 & a & b \\
0 &1 &c \\
0 & 0 & 1
\end{bmatrix} \quad \middle| \quad \text{ for any} a,b,c\in F\, \right\}\] be the Heisenberg group over $F$.
(The group operation of the Heisenberg group is matrix multiplication.)

Determine which matrices lie in the center of $H(F)$ and prove that the center $Z\big(H(F)\big)$ is isomorphic to the additive group $F$.

 
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Eckmann–Hilton Argument: Group Operation is a Group Homomorphism

Problem 268

Let $G$ be a group with the identity element $e$ and suppose that we have a group homomorphism $\phi$ from the direct product $G \times G$ to $G$ satisfying
\[\phi(e, g)=g \text{ and } \phi(g, e)=g, \tag{*}\] for any $g\in G$.

Let $\mu: G\times G \to G$ be a map defined by
\[\mu(g, h)=gh.\] (That is, $\mu$ is the group operation on $G$.)

Then prove that $\phi=\mu$.
Also prove that the group $G$ is abelian.

 
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Equivalent Definitions of Characteristic Subgroups. Center is Characteristic.

Problem 246

Let $H$ be a subgroup of a group $G$. We call $H$ characteristic in $G$ if for any automorphism $\sigma\in \Aut(G)$ of $G$, we have $\sigma(H)=H$.

(a) Prove that if $\sigma(H) \subset H$ for all $\sigma \in \Aut(G)$, then $H$ is characteristic in $G$.

(b) Prove that the center $Z(G)$ of $G$ is characteristic in $G$.

 
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A Group Homomorphism is Injective if and only if Monic

Problem 243

Let $f:G\to G’$ be a group homomorphism. We say that $f$ is monic whenever we have $fg_1=fg_2$, where $g_1:K\to G$ and $g_2:K \to G$ are group homomorphisms for some group $K$, we have $g_1=g_2$.

Then prove that a group homomorphism $f: G \to G’$ is injective if and only if it is monic.

 
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