Let $R$ be the ring of all continuous functions on the interval $[0, 2]$.
Let $I$ be the subset of $R$ defined by
\[I:=\{ f(x) \in R \mid f(1)=0\}.\]
Then prove that $I$ is an ideal of the ring $R$.
Moreover, show that $I$ is maximal and determine $R/I$.

Consider the map $\phi:R\to \R$ defined by
\[\phi(f)=f(1),\]
for every $f(x)\in R$.

Proof.

Let us consider the map $\phi$ from $R$ to the field of real numbers $\R$ defined by
\[\phi(f)=f(1),\]
for each $f(x)\in R$. Namely, the map $\phi$ is the evaluation at $x=1$.

We claim that $\phi:R \to \R$ is a ring homomorphism. In fact we have for any $f(x), g(x)\in R$,
\begin{align*}
\phi(fg)=(fg)(1)=f(1)g(1)=\phi(f)\phi(g)\\
\phi(f+g)=(f+g)(1)=f(1)+g(1)=\phi(f)+\phi(g),
\end{align*}
hence $\phi$ is a ring homomorphism.
Next, consider the kernel of $\phi$. We have
\begin{align*}
\ker(\phi)&=\{ f(x)\in R\mid \phi(f)=0\}\\
&=\{f(x) \in R \mid f(1)=0\}=I.
\end{align*}
Since the kernel of a ring homomorphism is an ideal, it follows that $I=\ker(\phi)$ is an ideal of $R$.
Next, we claim that $\phi$ is surjective. To see this, let $r\in \R$ be an arbitrary real number.
Define the constant function $f(x)=r$. Then $f(x)$ is an element in $R$ as it is continuous function on $[0, 2]$.
We have
\begin{align*}
\phi(f)=f(1)=r,
\end{align*}
and this proves that $\phi$ is surjective.
Since $\phi: R\to \R$ is a surjective ring homomorphism, the first isomorphism theorem yields that
\[R/\ker(\phi) \cong \R.\]
Since $\ker(\phi)=I$ as we saw above, we have
\[R/I \cong \R.\]
Thus, the quotient ring $R/I$ is isomorphic to the field $\R$.
It follows from this that $I$ is a maximal ideal of $R$.

(Recall the fact that an ideal $I$ of a commutative ring $R$ is maximal if and only if $R/I$ is a field.)

Characteristic of an Integral Domain is 0 or a Prime Number
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$. Show that if $R$ is an integral domain, then the characteristic of $R$ is either $0$ or a prime number $p$.
Definition of the characteristic of a ring.
The characteristic of a commutative ring $R$ with $1$ is defined as […]

$(x^3-y^2)$ is a Prime Ideal in the Ring $R[x, y]$, $R$ is an Integral Domain.
Let $R$ be an integral domain. Then prove that the ideal $(x^3-y^2)$ is a prime ideal in the ring $R[x, y]$.
Proof.
Consider the ring $R[t]$, where $t$ is a variable. Since $R$ is an integral domain, so is $R[t]$.
Define the function $\Psi:R[x,y] \to R[t]$ sending […]

Determine the Quotient Ring $\Z[\sqrt{10}]/(2, \sqrt{10})$
Let
\[P=(2, \sqrt{10})=\{a+b\sqrt{10} \mid a, b \in \Z, 2|a\}\]
be an ideal of the ring
\[\Z[\sqrt{10}]=\{a+b\sqrt{10} \mid a, b \in \Z\}.\]
Then determine the quotient ring $\Z[\sqrt{10}]/P$.
Is $P$ a prime ideal? Is $P$ a maximal ideal?
Solution.
We […]

Prove the Ring Isomorphism $R[x,y]/(x) \cong R[y]$
Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Consider the polynomial ring $R[x,y]$ in two variables $x, y$.
Let $(x)$ be the principal ideal of $R[x,y]$ generated by $x$.
Prove that $R[x, y]/(x)$ is isomorphic to $R[y]$ as a ring.
Proof.
Define the map $\psi: R[x,y] \to […]

If the Quotient Ring is a Field, then the Ideal is Maximal
Let $R$ be a ring with unit $1\neq 0$.
Prove that if $M$ is an ideal of $R$ such that $R/M$ is a field, then $M$ is a maximal ideal of $R$.
(Do not assume that the ring $R$ is commutative.)
Proof.
Let $I$ be an ideal of $R$ such that
\[M \subset I \subset […]

Generators of the Augmentation Ideal in a Group Ring
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$ and let $G$ be a finite group with identity element $e$. Let $RG$ be the group ring. Then the map $\epsilon: RG \to R$ defined by
\[\epsilon(\sum_{i=1}^na_i g_i)=\sum_{i=1}^na_i,\]
where $a_i\in R$ and $G=\{g_i\}_{i=1}^n$, is a ring […]

The Quotient Ring by an Ideal of a Ring of Some Matrices is Isomorphic to $\Q$.
Let
\[R=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
a & b\\
0& a
\end{bmatrix} \quad \middle | \quad a, b\in \Q \,\right\}.\]
Then the usual matrix addition and multiplication make $R$ an ring.
Let
\[J=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
0 & b\\
0& 0
\end{bmatrix} […]