Note that the zero vector in the vector space $C[-\pi, \pi]$ is the zero function
\[\theta(x):=0.\]

Let us consider a linear combination
\[a_1\cos(x)+a_2\sin(x)=\theta(x)=0 \tag{*}.\]
If this linear combination has only the zero solution $a_1=a_2=0$, then the set $\{\cos(x), \sin(x)\}$ is linearly independent.

The equality (*) should be true for any values of $x\in [-\pi, \pi]$.
Setting $x=0$, we obtain from (*) that
\[a_1=0\]
since $\cos(0)=1, \sin(0)=0$.

We also set $x=\pi/2$ and we obtain
\[a_2=0\]
since $\cos(\pi/2)=0, \sin(\pi/2)=1$.
Therefore, we have $a_1=a_2=0$ and we conclude that the set $\{\cos(x), \sin(x)\}$ is linearly independent.

Linear Independent Continuous Functions
Let $C[3, 10]$ be the vector space consisting of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[3, 10]$. Consider the set
\[S=\{ \sqrt{x}, x^2 \}\]
in $C[3,10]$.
Show that the set $S$ is linearly independent in $C[3,10]$.
Proof.
Note that the zero vector […]

True or False. The Intersection of Bases is a Basis of the Intersection of Subspaces
Determine whether the following is true of false. If it is true, then give a proof. If it is false, then give a counterexample.
Let $W_1$ and $W_2$ be subspaces of the vector space $\R^n$.
If $B_1$ and $B_2$ are bases for $W_1$ and $W_2$, respectively, then $B_1\cap B_2$ is a […]

Linear Independent Vectors and the Vector Space Spanned By Them
Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $K$. Let $\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n$ be linearly independent vectors in $V$. Let $U$ be the subspace of $V$ spanned by these vectors, that is, $U=\Span \{\mathbf{u}_1, \mathbf{u}_2, \dots, \mathbf{u}_n\}$.
Let […]

Any Vector is a Linear Combination of Basis Vectors Uniquely
Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ be a basis for a vector space $V$ over a scalar field $K$. Then show that any vector $\mathbf{v}\in V$ can be written uniquely as
\[\mathbf{v}=c_1\mathbf{v}_1+c_2\mathbf{v}_2+c_3\mathbf{v}_3,\]
where $c_1, c_2, c_3$ are […]

Are Linear Transformations of Derivatives and Integrations Linearly Independent?
Let $W=C^{\infty}(\R)$ be the vector space of all $C^{\infty}$ real-valued functions (smooth function, differentiable for all degrees of differentiation).
Let $V$ be the vector space of all linear transformations from $W$ to $W$.
The addition and the scalar multiplication of $V$ […]

Linear Transformation and a Basis of the Vector Space $\R^3$
Let $T$ be a linear transformation from the vector space $\R^3$ to $\R^3$.
Suppose that $k=3$ is the smallest positive integer such that $T^k=\mathbf{0}$ (the zero linear transformation) and suppose that we have $\mathbf{x}\in \R^3$ such that $T^2\mathbf{x}\neq \mathbf{0}$.
Show […]

The Subset Consisting of the Zero Vector is a Subspace and its Dimension is Zero
Let $V$ be a subset of the vector space $\R^n$ consisting only of the zero vector of $\R^n$. Namely $V=\{\mathbf{0}\}$.
Then prove that $V$ is a subspace of $\R^n$.
Proof.
To prove that $V=\{\mathbf{0}\}$ is a subspace of $\R^n$, we check the following subspace […]