An Orthogonal Transformation from $\R^n$ to $\R^n$ is an Isomorphism

Problem 592

Let $\R^n$ be an inner product space with inner product $\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\rangle=\mathbf{x}^{\trans}\mathbf{y}$ for $\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\in \R^n$.

A linear transformation $T:\R^n \to \R^n$ is called orthogonal transformation if for all $\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y}\in \R^n$, it satisfies
\[\langle T(\mathbf{x}), T(\mathbf{y})\rangle=\langle\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y} \rangle.\]

Prove that if $T:\R^n\to \R^n$ is an orthogonal transformation, then $T$ is an isomorphism.

 
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Exponential Functions Form a Basis of a Vector Space

Problem 590

Let $C[-1, 1]$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all continuous functions defined on the interval $[-1, 1]$. Let
\[V:=\{f(x)\in C[-1,1] \mid f(x)=a e^x+b e^{2x}+c e^{3x}, a, b, c\in \R\}\] be a subset in $C[-1, 1]$.

(a) Prove that $V$ is a subspace of $C[-1, 1]$.

(b) Prove that the set $B=\{e^x, e^{2x}, e^{3x}\}$ is a basis of $V$.

(c) Prove that
\[B’=\{e^x-2e^{3x}, e^x+e^{2x}+2e^{3x}, 3e^{2x}+e^{3x}\}\] is a basis for $V$.

 
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Use Coordinate Vectors to Show a Set is a Basis for the Vector Space of Polynomials of Degree 2 or Less

Problem 588

Let $P_2$ be the vector space over $\R$ of all polynomials of degree $2$ or less.
Let $S=\{p_1(x), p_2(x), p_3(x)\}$, where
\[p_1(x)=x^2+1, \quad p_2(x)=6x^2+x+2, \quad p_3(x)=3x^2+x.\]

(a) Use the basis $B=\{x^2, x, 1\}$ of $P_2$ to prove that the set $S$ is a basis for $P_2$.

(b) Find the coordinate vector of $p(x)=x^2+2x+3\in P_2$ with respect to the basis $S$.

 
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Diagonalize the $2\times 2$ Hermitian Matrix by a Unitary Matrix

Problem 585

Consider the Hermitian matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
1 & i\\
-i& 1
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, find the eigenvectors.

(c) Diagonalize the Hermitian matrix $A$ by a unitary matrix. Namely, find a diagonal matrix $D$ and a unitary matrix $U$ such that $U^{-1}AU=D$.

 
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Diagonalize the Upper Triangular Matrix and Find the Power of the Matrix

Problem 583

Consider the $2\times 2$ complex matrix
\[A=\begin{bmatrix}
a & b-a\\
0& b
\end{bmatrix}.\]

(a) Find the eigenvalues of $A$.

(b) For each eigenvalue of $A$, determine the eigenvectors.

(c) Diagonalize the matrix $A$.

(d) Using the result of the diagonalization, compute and simplify $A^k$ for each positive integer $k$.

 
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Is the Sum of a Nilpotent Matrix and an Invertible Matrix Invertible?

Problem 582

A square matrix $A$ is called nilpotent if some power of $A$ is the zero matrix.
Namely, $A$ is nilpotent if there exists a positive integer $k$ such that $A^k=O$, where $O$ is the zero matrix.

Suppose that $A$ is a nilpotent matrix and let $B$ be an invertible matrix of the same size as $A$.
Is the matrix $B-A$ invertible? If so prove it. Otherwise, give a counterexample.

 
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The Subspace of Linear Combinations whose Sums of Coefficients are zero

Problem 581

Let $V$ be a vector space over a scalar field $K$.
Let $\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ be vectors in $V$ and consider the subset
\[W=\{a_1\mathbf{v}_1+a_2\mathbf{v}_2+\cdots+ a_k\mathbf{v}_k \mid a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k \in K \text{ and } a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_k=0\}.\] So each element of $W$ is a linear combination of vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, \dots, \mathbf{v}_k$ such that the sum of the coefficients is zero.

Prove that $W$ is a subspace of $V$.

 
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Determine Whether Each Set is a Basis for $\R^3$

Problem 579

Determine whether each of the following sets is a basis for $\R^3$.

(a) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
1 \\
-1
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
-2 \\
1 \\
4
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

(b) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
4 \\
7
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
2 \\
5 \\
8
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
6 \\
9
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

(c) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
2
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
7
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

(d) $S=\left\{\, \begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
2 \\
5
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
7 \\
4 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
3 \\
8 \\
6
\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix}
-1 \\
9 \\
10
\end{bmatrix} \,\right\}$

 
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Find the Dimension of the Subspace of Vectors Perpendicular to Given Vectors

Problem 578

Let $V$ be a subset of $\R^4$ consisting of vectors that are perpendicular to vectors $\mathbf{a}, \mathbf{b}$ and $\mathbf{c}$, where
\[\mathbf{a}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
0 \\
1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{b}=\begin{bmatrix}
1 \\
1 \\
0 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}, \quad \mathbf{c}=\begin{bmatrix}
0 \\
1 \\
-1 \\
0
\end{bmatrix}.\]

Namely,
\[V=\{\mathbf{x}\in \R^4 \mid \mathbf{a}^{\trans}\mathbf{x}=0, \mathbf{b}^{\trans}\mathbf{x}=0, \text{ and } \mathbf{c}^{\trans}\mathbf{x}=0\}.\]

(a) Prove that $V$ is a subspace of $\R^4$.

(b) Find a basis of $V$.

(c) Determine the dimension of $V$.

 
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If a Half of a Group are Elements of Order 2, then the Rest form an Abelian Normal Subgroup of Odd Order

Problem 575

Let $G$ be a finite group of order $2n$.
Suppose that exactly a half of $G$ consists of elements of order $2$ and the rest forms a subgroup.
Namely, suppose that $G=S\sqcup H$, where $S$ is the set of all elements of order in $G$, and $H$ is a subgroup of $G$. The cardinalities of $S$ and $H$ are both $n$.

Then prove that $H$ is an abelian normal subgroup of odd order.

 
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Three Linearly Independent Vectors in $\R^3$ Form a Basis. Three Vectors Spanning $\R^3$ Form a Basis.

Problem 574

Let $B=\{\mathbf{v}_1, \mathbf{v}_2, \mathbf{v}_3\}$ be a set of three-dimensional vectors in $\R^3$.

(a) Prove that if the set $B$ is linearly independent, then $B$ is a basis of the vector space $\R^3$.

(b) Prove that if the set $B$ spans $\R^3$, then $B$ is a basis of $\R^3$.

 
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